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Volume 08 of W. Ross Ashby's Journal
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1944
Volume 08
1799+04 1799+05
Society [13]: Why a civil servant should not show initiative! 1800.
Society [16]: In a united section of society effects should be graduated or continuous, 1800.
1799+06 1800
Summary: Two points on applications to society.
1801 1802
Summary: Note on exposition.
Summary: The ordinary pendulum is not stable if we are referring to both position and velocity
1803 1804
Summary: Useful quotations.
Summary: There is no limit to the number of variables which have to be fixed to get an isolated or absolute system.
1805 1806
Society [17]: In society, variables must not be fixed thoughtlessly, 1807.
Oddments [14]: Effect on equilibrium of fixing a variablle, 1808. Numerical test of proportion which become unstable, 1995.
1807 1808
Summary: Notes on effect of fixing an economic variable. This may make a stable system unstable. Spur of joined machines. (see 1910) and (1995 bottom)
1809 1810
Summary: A detailed non-linear use.
Society [4]: Verdoom on complexity of society and need for regulation, 1812.
1811 1812
Summary: Effect on a field of fixing a variable.
1813 1814
Natural Selection [3]: Natural selection actually seen to work in the peppered moth, in Manchester 1723, in Plymouth crabs 1815, in American sparrows 1816, in most mutations 1883, in Drosophila with gene 'ebony' 1886.
Natural Selection [3]: Natural selection actually seen to work in the peppered moth, in Manchester 1723, in Plymouth crabs 1815, in American sparrows 1816, in most mutations 1883, in Drosophila with gene 'ebony' 1886.
1815 1816
1817 1817+01
Higher geometry of fields and matrix theory [20]: Forming system with given roots 1818, 2444.
1817+02 1818
1819 1820
Summary: (Under conditions) two linear systems are equiformal if and only if they have the same characteristic equation.
1821 1822
Higher geometry of fields and matrix theory [15]: If EQUATION, with roots r1,...,rn, to find ?rp/?aSt, 0750, 1824. i.e. effect of coefficient on a root. Example 2066, 2401.
1823 1824
Summary: Examples of a system tending to restore previous constants.
The Conditioned Reflex [9]: Two examples of a system stabilising a variable after the variable has been fixed repeatedly there, 1826.
1825 1826
Summary: Another actual absolute system.
Higher geometry of fields and matrix theory [9]: If, as matrices, EXPRESSION, then EXPRESSION, 1828.
1827 1828
Summary: Equation of the plane which contains n consecutive points.
Higher geometry of fields and matrix theory [3]: Equation of the plane which contains n consecutive points of the path, 1829.
1829 1830
1831 1832
1833 1834
Summary: Review of Spencer, with useful quotations.
Natural Selection [25]: Waves on the coast as selective operators, 1737. So is a ratchet, 1836. Erosion and rain has a peculiarity, 1947.
Society [10]: Herbert Spencer notes equilibrium in society, 1836.
1835 1836
Natural Selection [29]: The projective operators of quantum theory are selective; they have no inverses; 1838. A remarkable possibility to be noted, 1838.
1837 1838
Summary: Independence over two regions.
Summary: Several parts, all unstable, can form a stable whole. (Simple example 2044)
1839 1840
1945
1841 1842
Summary: Routh's test for stability. (Ready for use, 1862)
1843 1844
Summary: The probability of stability is in general unsolvable, but certain special cases might be attacked again later. (Continued 1868)
1845 1846
Summary: Some facts which any organisation must stabilise.
1847 1848
Summary: Stability, and not mere fixity, is needed in society, even if only to deal with small errors.
Society [19]: Stability, not merely fixity, is essential, 1849.
Society [22]: Variables which have to be stabilised in society 1849.
1849 1850
Summary: Unstable equilibrium in a society.
Society [18]: Actual example of unstable equilibrium in a country, 1851, two more examples, 2434.
Natural Selection [40]: Survival-value is the crux of the whole thing, 1852. Are two values to each selective operator 1853. Words for it, 1853.
1851 1852
Summary: Some suggestions for a word to mean "survival-value". Note on selective operators.
Natural Selection [40]: Survival-value is the crux of the whole thing, 1852. Are two values to each selective operator 1853. Words for it, 1853.
Maze T.A. Ross' machine
1853 1854
Summary: A machine that learns.
1855 1856
Summary: Part-function is now redefined.
1857 1858
Summary: If there are many commutive systems sometimes affecting one another, and a parameter taking several values affects one of them, the fields in that one resulting have maximal survival-probability when all the neutral points are in the same place. (See next note) (see 1942)
1859 1860
Summary: It is to be remembered that Fisher's book was highly successful though no formal proofs are given anywhere.
1861 1862
1863 1863+01
Summary: Routh's test for stability given in immediately usable form.
1863+02 1864
1865 1866
Summary: The relations of independences and activations of part-functions.
1867 1868
Summary: There is good reason to assume that the chance of stable equilibrium will often fall off as (1/2)n.
Society [28]: Shakespeare quotation on conflict in man and society 1870.
1869 1870
1871 1872
1873 1874
Summary: For a system to get adapted by parts, it is proved necessary that most of the features of a distributive must be present; i.e. there is no other way. (Improved, 1985)
1875 1876
Summary: Sex activity by my theory must result in a lowering of impulse-density.
1877 1878
Summary: Two adaptations may be better than two independent adaptations.
Parachute and instability
Summary: In future, I hope to effect an improvement in literary style.
1879 1880
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
1881 1882
Natural Selection [3]: Natural selection actually seen to work in the peppered moth, in Manchester 1723, in Plymouth crabs 1815, in American sparrows 1816, in most mutations 1883, in Drosophila with gene 'ebony' 1886.
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
1883 1884
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
Natural Selection [3]: Natural selection actually seen to work in the peppered moth, in Manchester 1723, in Plymouth crabs 1815, in American sparrows 1816, in most mutations 1883, in Drosophila with gene 'ebony' 1886.
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
1885 1886
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
Summary: Mendelian theory vs. Distributive theory.
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
1887 1888
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
1889 1890
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
Summary: Mendelian and neuronic adaptations compared and contrasted.
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
1891 1892
Summary: "Dominant and recessive" applied to a distributive system.
Natural Selection [14]: Mendelian "dominant" and "recessive" applied to distributive system 1893. Financial example 1897.
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
1893 1894
Summary: A dynamic system must definitely either proceed to equilibrium or to infinity.
Independence types of
Society [5]: Humorous illustration of the difficulty of getting organised spontaneously, 1896.
1895 1896
Natural Selection [14]: Mendelian "dominant" and "recessive" applied to distributive system 1893. Financial example 1897.
Society [20]: "Dominant" and "recessive" in the economic world, 1897.
Oddments [3]: If A dominates B, study of B cannot reveal the organisation of A, 1898.
1897 1898
Oddments [19]: "Observing" a dynamic system means joining oneself on to it to form an "hourglass" organisation, 1899.
Summary: It seems that, if A dominates B, no examination of B's behaviour can reveal the organisation of A. To "examine" B means that the observer forms an hour-glass system with it.
1899 1900
1901 1902
1903 1904
Summary: In forming a big organisation the process must be (1) to list the main* variables, (2) to attempt stability by the same number of completely independent commutive systems, (3) with variables which refuse to get stable, add small joins, letting them be few in number and simple in type (i.e. step-functions). [* Now called 'essential', not 'main'.]
Society [21]: In forming any social system the joins should be minimal, 1905.
1905 1906
1907 1908
Summary: Usable extracts from Sherrington's "Life's unfolding".
1909 1910
1911 1912
Entropy Schrödinger on
Natural Selection [41]: A gene has two survival-values, its chance of being destroyed by a competitor, and its chance of being destroyed by thermal agitation, 1913.
1913 1914
Summary: Extract of Schrödinger.
1915 1916
1917 1918
Summary: For the world to be suitable to be adapted to, it must contain a large proportion of part-functions.
Oddments [5]: Dealing with unobservables in physics, Eddington on, 1920.
1919 1920
Summary: Inactive variables cannot transmit effects, either from other variables or from bounds. (Converse 1977)
1921 1922
Summary: Masserman on what happens when an animal meets a deliberately chaotic environment.
1923 1924
Summary: "Break" is better "saltus".
1925 1926
Summary: Quotation from Wells. Note on the basic meaning of "organisation".
Organisation Wells on
1927 1928
1929 1930
1931 1932
Summary: Simple, worked-out examples for exposition.
1933 1934
Summary: Distributive system vs. Genetic analogue.
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
1935 1936
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
1937 1938
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
1939 1940
Summary: A further list of correspondences between genetic and neuronic adaptation.
Natural Selection [21]: A full discussion of adaptation in heredity compared with adaptation by commution, { 1881 - 1893 } Complementary list, { 1936 - 1941 }.
1941 1942
Summary: In a distributive system, if from time to time certain variables are constrained to certain values, the variables will tend to become in equilibrium at those values. (Better 2015) Also 1981, 2011, 2012
The Conditioned Reflex [3]: Simple conditioned reflex as an elementary property of the commutive system, 1621. Still unsolved, 1943. Solved with multistable system, 1982. Further observations, 2064, 2490. Still unsolved, with reasons, 2192, 2243.
The Conditioned Reflex [11]: In a multistable system, if variables are repeatedly forced to certain values they will tend to become stabilised there, 1943. Improved statement, 2015, 2240.
Natural Selection [28]: Selective operators 1536. Five discovered by me, 1944.
1943 1944
Summary: So far I have discovered five basic operators and their variants.
1945 1946
Summary: The peculiarities of a system (may) impose "drifts" on the field, to which any path must conform.
Natural Selection [25]: Waves on the coast as selective operators, 1737. So is a ratchet, 1836. Erosion and rain has a peculiarity, 1947.
1947 1948
1949 1950
1951 1952
Summary: Exposition.
1953 1954
1955 1956
1957 1958
Summary: Points on exposition.
1959 1959+01

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