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Volume 16 of W. Ross Ashby's Journal
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1952
Volume 16
3941+03 3941+04
Summary: Examples showing how 'adaptation' means 'destroying information'. 4133, 4155, 4159, 4167
3942 3943
Lattice of partition
Partition lattice theory
3944 3945
3946 3947
3948 3949
Summary: Partition and lattice.
Summary: Partitions in absolute ensembles.
Information and lattice theory
3950 3951
Summary: Fault in book, to be corrected. Yes. 3966, 3986
Summary: Partitions in absolute ensembles. 3997
Behaviour two behaviours as constraint
Step-mechanism faults in first "proof"
3952 3953
Experience
Information fall under change of parameter
Parameter allows information to fall
3954 3955
Activity positive effect of
Memory filling of
Oddments [32]: Prolonged activity of a parameter makes the system's behaviour tend to depend more on the parameter's particular line of behaviour than on the system's particular initial state, 3956.
Essential variables dominating a system
The Multistable System [32]: Properties of each part depend more and more, as time goes on, what happens to it rather that on which initial state it started from. 3957.
3956 3957
Summary: Input makes for uniformity. 4048, 4122
3958 3959
Summary: A quite different way of defining and handling the absolute system. 3962, 4019. Review, 4338
Information levels of
Information what is necessary
3960 3961
Basin invariant under time
3962 3963
Summary: States and metric give field.
Summary: Ultrastability does not need step-functions!
Metric step-function and
Step function in set-theory
3964 3965
Ultrastability formal proof
3966 3967
Summary: Ultrastability can act without a metric. 3986
Natural Selection [49]: Ultrstability as a form of selection, 3968, top.
3968 3969
3970 3971
3972 3973
Basin in random field
Connexion in random field
Field (of substitution) random
3974 3975
3976 3977
Basin method for many
Resting state maximal number
Summary: How to get many resting states (argued without a metric).
Topology of my concepts
3978 3979
3980 3981
Independence not invariant
3982 3983
Summary: My concepts divided into the topological and the metrical. 4026
Summary: The concept of 'state' does not require number or metric.
Metric system without
3984 3985
Ultrastability formal proof
3986 3987
3988 3989
Summary: Ultrastability proved at last! Worked out example 3967 Obsolete! 4232
N-tuple
Continuity is metrical
3990 3991
Summary: 'Step-functions' topologically. 4000, 4005, 4602
Step function topology of
3992 3993
Summary: Why do our brains take so much notice of a step-function? 4233
Unsolved problems [14]: Why do we take so much notice of a step-function? 3994. (because of its 1-bit simplicity).
Summary: 'Absoluteness' is relative to an observer. 4031, 4043.
Information levels of
3994 3995
Class I.e. not to individual
Congruence
Ideal (mathematical)
Information 'complete' within limits
Quotient machine and residue class
Residues (of congruences)
Summary: Residue classes in behaviour.
Basin as partition
Partition lattice theory
3996 3997
Chemical dynamics solution that goes blue
Delay (in substitution) solution for showing delay
Summary: A chemical dynamic system.
3998 3999
Part-function definition
Step function improved definition
4000 4001
Summary: A more rigorous definition of full, part, step, and null functions. Try it on 3900, 4604
Joining geometric
Summary: Joining parts to form a whole.
Personal notes [15]: Change of direction at Burden Neurological Institute. 4003.
4002 4003
Summary: Change of direction.
Summary: Examples of a single artificial absolute system. 4486 if some states become indistinguishable.
Basin example
Transformation decimal places 3 and 4 of log10(100+x)
Summary: Note on the subjective.
4004 4005
Part-function properties of system with
The Multistable System [44]: Sub-systems of multistable system viewed topologically, 4007.
4006 4007
4008 4009
Summary: Lewin's Topological Psychology. 4026
The Multistable System [45]: Multistable system tends to have terminal fields with little activation, 4011.
4010 4011
Summary: Absolute systems. Q.E.D.
Oddments [38]: The variables common to two absolute systems must be absolute 4012.
Memory in action
Psychiatric applications [19]: Schizophrenia might be due to an unfixing of memories that ought to stay fixed 4013.
Hover mouse here to display note
4012 4013
Unconscious, the memory in
Summary: On memory and schizophrenia.
Summary: For progressive adaptation the essential variables must be multiple. 4167
Summary: On infinitesimal disturbances.
The Multistable System [46]: In the multistable system, essential variables must be mulitple if adaptation is to be progressive, 4015.
4014 4015
Part-function lock and key as example
Summary: Examples of systems with part functions.
Essential variables complexity of
4016 4017
Summary: Two independent 'complexities' in the 'complex system'. 4167, 4189
Summary: Importance of a system's history. 4041, 4048, 4302
History of system
Teleology and system's history
4018 4019
Summary: Interaction between adaptations.
Summary: My solution includes all solutions.
Personal notes [16]: The 'Ashby' solution includes all solutions, 4021.
4020 4021
Summary: S.8/2 should be re-worded.
Class of states
Distinguishability equivalence relation
Metric system without
State in classes
4022 4023
Absolute system of homomorphism
Homomorphism over protocol
Summary: 'Coarsening' an absolute system. 4041, 4475, 4919
Coursening
Field (of substitution) can be made a vector
4024 4025
Summary: Field as vector.
Summary: Meaning of 'topological'.
Statistical mechanics Lashley on
Topology of my concepts
Localisation Laskley on
Memory in visual cortex
The Multistable System [47]: Lashley supports the statistical view, 4027.
4026 4027
Memory size of units
Quotations [45]: "The organisation stability of a performance of the nervous system is greater than the precision of the underlying structural apparatus" Weiss, 4028.
Summary: Quotations
Serial adaptation Lashley on
4028 4029
Summary: The absolute system does not imply a group. 4033
Absolute system origin of
Summary: An absolute system is a selected projection of the world-lines. 4038, 4043, 4292
Homeostat equations etc
4030 4031
Summary: The homeostat's equations.
Summary: Being a one-parameter group is not sufficient to ensure absoluteness.
4032 4033
Summary: I formally reject the concept of 'group'.
Summary: The 'group property' without groups.
4034 4035
Natural Selection [52]: Abstact form of 'selection', 4036.
Summary: Abstract, and objective form of 'selection'. Review: 4137. 4099, 4229
Selection abstract definition
4036 4037
Summary: Non-metrical definition of 'stability'.
Summary: Why not two, or more, representative points? 4121
4038 4039
Summary: Every regular system can be made to yield an absolute system. 4042, 4302
Equivalence relation by not observing
4040 4041
Summary: A regular system is practically an absolute system.
Summary: Nature of absoluteness. 4292, 4306
Absolute system origin of
4042 4043
Joining non-metric
4044 4045
Summary: The joining of machines can be represented without a metric. 4332, 4471
Summary: Continuity of transformation.
Continuity in machine
4046 4047
Epistemology experimenter in
Experimenter is ensemble
Epistemology [8]: The observer as ensemble 4048.
Originality
4048 4049
Summary: 'Observing' a system means letting the regularity of the system's behaviour lessen the scatter in the ensemble of experimenters. 4122, 4296, Review 4348
4050 4051
Summary: If a system is very large and its lines of behaviour very long, the 'later' ends of the lines must differ from the 'earlier' in some 'Darwinian' way. (Note on 4055) 4099, Review 4141, 4201
Summary: Essential variables. 4161
Essential variables complexity of
4052 4053
Summary: In exposition, use non-learning systems as examples of organisational facts.
Summary: Arcs breed. ? 4151, 4065
Arc breeding of
The Multistable System [48]: Perhaps arcs in the cortex breed, 4054.
Self-locking system field of
4054 4055
Summary: The field of the self-locking system. 4065, 4155
4056 4057
Servo-mechanism as attendant
Summary: The 'ordinary' and the 'statistical' machine differ only in the proportions allotted to the directly functioning part and the parameter-adjusting, servo-mechanistic part. 4061
4058 4059
Summary: More examples of the stable and unstable. 4062, 4070, 4074
Equilibrium examples in geology
Summary: Example of 'stability' miss-used. Further examples 4062, 4070
4060 4061
Summary: Economic systems vary in their amounts of stabilising machinery.
Society [43]: Stabilising machinery in economic systems; free forms v. controlled forms, 4062.
Summary: The organism that 'knows' a line of behaviour is better if it knows the adjustment lines as well. Answered 4608
Knowing extent of
4062 4063
4064 4065
Summary: Musings on evolution and the cortex. Review: 4155, 4071
Noise must be used
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [74]: Some source must provide variation 4067.
4066 4067
The Multistable System [49]: The intelligent adult is locked in this state 4068.
Summary: The basis of both the multistable and the evolving system is the self-locking system (and its superior, the self-reproducing). 4071, 4099, 4153, 4166, 4201, 4229
4068 4069
Summary: Learning that have to adapt to a fixed (reflex) mechanism.
Summary: Meteorological dynamics. 4072
4070 4071
Summary: Self-reproducing systems. 4086, 4099, 4154
Summary: Complex systems can also be regular.
4072 4073
Reproduction growth of hobbies
Natural Selection [53]: Spreading of interest in hobbies as reproduction, 4074.
Natural Selection [54]: 'Partial' reproduction occurs when the occurrence of one merely increases the probability of another occurring. 4074.
Summary: "Design for a Brain" must use methods of proof that correspond to what I hold are the natural, physiological, methods.
Natural Selection [55]: Self-reproduction in instability, 4075.
4074 4075
Summary: Random transformations.
The Multistable System [50]: Random transformation used by card player - quotation, 4076.
Chess strategy in
The Multistable System [51]: Selective correction, 4077.
4076 4077
Noise pressure of
Summary: The multistable system may have no trend if wrongly devised. 4080.0, 4175, 4201
4078 4079
Summary: Multiple faults in a machine. 4613, 4195, 4201
Psychiatric applications [27]: Hidden 'pain' as a possible cause of psychosis, 4080.
Summary: A possible cause of psychosis.
4080 4081
Mathematics as dynamic system
Summary: Waismann's book.
Dimension Bronwer's theorem
4082 4083
Summary: Example for localisation.
Summary: Absolute systems within absolute systems. (Continued 4113)
Self-locking system molecule as
4084 4085
Natural Selection [56]: What 'reproduces' is a vector or some more general 'quality' 4086.
Summary: More on evolution. 4610, Review 4201, 4155, 4099
4086 4087
Summary: In discussion, force every question to be converted to an acceptable form before answering.
Personal notes [17]: In discussion, before answering a question, force the question into a new, precise form before answering 4088.
4088 4089
Summary: Judge the difficulty of "Design for a Brain" by the comprehension shown by the average worker in EEG. Adjust the difficulty so that almost all such workers show comprehension.
Energy notes on
Entropy in physics
Hover mouse here to display note
4090 4091
4092 4093
Summary: Entropy etc.
Entropy dimensions of
Set or Ensemble in experimenter
4094 4095
Summary: The demonstration of feedback requires three primary operations.
Diagram of immediate effects (D.I.E.) demonstration of
Feedback demonstration of
Summary: How many primary operations are required to establish the diagram of immediate effects?
4096 4097
Summary: To study an absolute system of σ states, σ elementary operations are necessary, and they yield σ log σ of information. 4112
Summary: Compare 'adaptation' in the multistable system with 'adaptation' in evolution. (My aim is to show them as identical). 4086, 4071, 4064, 4056, 4036 Reviews: 4136, 4201
Natural Selection [57]: Comparison of adaptation in multistable system with adaptation in natural selection { 4098 - 4112 }.
Arc individual adaptiveness
Natural Selection [57]: Comparison of adaptation in multistable system with adaptation in natural selection { 4098 - 4112 }.
4098 4099
Thing as set of constraints
Natural Selection [57]: Comparison of adaptation in multistable system with adaptation in natural selection { 4098 - 4112 }.
Summary: What is a 'thing' in my type of concepts?
Natural Selection [57]: Comparison of adaptation in multistable system with adaptation in natural selection { 4098 - 4112 }.
4100 4101
Natural Selection [57]: Comparison of adaptation in multistable system with adaptation in natural selection { 4098 - 4112 }.
Natural Selection [57]: Comparison of adaptation in multistable system with adaptation in natural selection { 4098 - 4112 }.
4102 4103
Control by parameter
Thing control of
Natural Selection [57]: Comparison of adaptation in multistable system with adaptation in natural selection { 4098 - 4112 }.
Summary: A 'thing', therefore, can be said to exist in an absolute system when the observer's parametric control is insufficient for the exploration of all initial states, so that the states have to be tested in blocks.
Natural Selection [57]: Comparison of adaptation in multistable system with adaptation in natural selection { 4098 - 4112 }.
4104 4105
Summary: A 'thing' corresponds to a constraint. 4233, 4439, 4388, 4440, 4943
Summary: A 'thing' means redundancy. Example 4187
Constraint "thing" as
Natural Selection [57]: Comparison of adaptation in multistable system with adaptation in natural selection { 4098 - 4112 }.
Natural Selection [57]: Comparison of adaptation in multistable system with adaptation in natural selection { 4098 - 4112 }.
4106 4107
Natural Selection [57]: Comparison of adaptation in multistable system with adaptation in natural selection { 4098 - 4112 }.
Natural Selection [58]: There is no room for more than a few 'breeding' qualities, 4108.
Self-locking system as point on scale
Natural Selection [57]: Comparison of adaptation in multistable system with adaptation in natural selection { 4098 - 4112 }.
Natural Selection [59]: Whether the quality is, at a moment later, in the same or different variables, doesn't matter, 4109 (example of mushrooms)
4108 4109
Natural Selection [57]: Comparison of adaptation in multistable system with adaptation in natural selection { 4098 - 4112 }.
The Multistable System [52]: I do not argue that there must be Q's: I say that if there are responding Q's then they will be important. 4110.
Summary: We can now consider the 'isolation' that exists when a system is not surrounded by the absolute constancies previously postulated but by variables that, though not constant, are statistically constant.
Natural Selection [57]: Comparison of adaptation in multistable system with adaptation in natural selection { 4098 - 4112 }.
4110 4111
Summary: (a) Adaptations in multistable system and in Darwinian system compared
(b) What is a 'thing'?
(c) What is 'reproduction'? 4522
(d) A system is in a sense 'isolated' if the disturbances are statistically constant. Review 4137

Summary: Two points about dreams and the cortex.
Dream essential variables
Natural Selection [57]: Comparison of adaptation in multistable system with adaptation in natural selection { 4098 - 4112 }.
Summary: The difficulty of 'delay' is identical with the 'difficulty' of having too few variables.
Delay (in substitution) of number of variables
4112 4113
4114 4114+01
4114+02 4115
Absolute system within absolute system
Null-function in absolute system
Summary: Absolute systems in absolute systems. 4119, 4145
4116 4117
Absolute system rank of ?(F1...F1)/?(x...t)
Summary: Tests for absoluteness.
4118 4119
Summary: Absolute systems within absolute systems. 4145
Absolute system within absolute system
4120 4121
Summary: The representative point may be divided into parts, as the whole system is thought of in parts.
Information destruction of
Summary: More on information. 4133
Design for a Brain first advert
Personal notes [18]: First advertisment for "Design", 4123.
4122 4123
Step function necessary for memory
4124 4125
4126 4127
Step function and information
Threshold and step-functions
4128 4129
4130 4131
Summary: On the necessity for step-functions. 4158, 4161, 4238
Adaptation as destruction of information
Natural Selection [60]: Evolution has developed those gene-patterns that form an information destroyer between themselves and the world 4133.
Natural Selection [62]: Most intermediate variables are functions of both the genes and the environment 4133.
4132 4133
4134 4135
Summary: Destruction of information. 4164, 4166. Review 4151, 4385
Summary: Monograph on Evolution.
Self-locking system two examples
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
Summary: Part 1: Selection.
Adaptation equals selection
Selection monograph on
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
4136 4137
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [54]: By selecting from progressive classes, the intensity can be raised exponentially 4139.
4138 4139
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [55]: For really intense selection (a) thermal noise or cosmic radiation must be used as source (b) select by progressive stages. 4140.
Summary: Part 2: The study of very large systems.
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
Epistemology [9]: The study of very large systems, 4141.
4140 4141
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
4142 4143
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
Epistemology [10]: When a very large system is to be studied, the observer must pick on some few statistics to observe 4144.
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
4144 4145
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
4146 4147
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
Epistemology [11]: When observing a very large system we should select those functions (those statistics) that are particularly likely to show a runaway 4148.
Waves as entity
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
4148 4149
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
Summary: Part 3: The properties of Φ(q)
Eigen-theory value
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
Natural Selection [64]: Some qualities are such that Tt(Q) = α Q where Tt means 'let time t pass', and α is a numerical multiplier, then Φ(t) = Φ0e (α-1)t 4151
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
4150 4151
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
Self-locking system as point on scale
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
4152 4153
Self-locking system references
Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
Natural Selection [65]: Examples of 'qualities' that are self-reproducing: Autocatalysis, i.e. being a molecule of acetic acid (after ethyl acetate has been mixed with water), Combustion of gunpowder i.e. 'being a molecule at a high temperature', Spread of an epidemic, i.e. being ill with ....., Breeding of rabbits (i.e. being a molecule in a rabbit) 4154
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
The Multistable System [56]: If a quality Q is to be self-reproducing the basic system must be fairly homogenous 4154.
Summary: Evolutionary processes. 4172. Review 4201, 4790
Part 1: Selection. 4137.
Part 2: The study of very large systems. 4141.
Part 3: The properties of Φ(q) 4151

Natural Selection [63]: Monograph on Evolution { 4136 - 4155 }.
Natural Selection [66]: When there is more than one self-producing quality, competition occurs, and selection, 4155.
The Multistable System [53]: Mongraph on Evolution, { 4136 - 4155 }.
4154 4155
Summary: Runaway and information. 4303
Information at runaway
4156 4157
Essential variables use variation amplifier
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [76]: The self locking, ultrastable system deduced from four postulates. DIAGRAM 4158.
Amplifier use of in ultrastability
Variety necessity of
4158 4159
Summary: Adaptation of essential variables, (next page) 4163
Epistemology [12]: The observer must be present to disturb the system if ultrastability is to be demonstrated 4160.
Adaptation new formulation
Basin and step-function
Step function ultrastability without step function
The Multistable System [57]: Adaptation can use either step-function or basins, 4161.
4160 4161
Summary: Adaptation without step-functions.
The Multistable System [58]: Multistable systems does not need, but may advantageously have step-functions. 4162.
Training new formulation
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [78]: Instability as a danger, 4163.
4162 4163
Adaptation new formulation
Habituation
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [77]: The various aspects of the behaviour of the adapting system seen from the new point of view, 4164.
Summary: The adapting system - generalised, (next section). 4166, 4225
Self-locking system ultrastable system
Variety necessity of
4164 4165
Amplifier of power and variety
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [75]: In the ultrastable system the arrangement is DIAGRAM 4166.
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [79]: A thermostat has DIAGRAM 4166.
The Multistable System [59]: Essential variables must have a wide channel to the source of variety, 4167.
4166 4167
Environment divisible into part controlled by the brain and part not
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [80]: The environment should be divided into (a) what the brain can affect (b) the rest. 4168.
4168 4169
Summary: (1) The homeostat is a self-regulator that uses information instead of power, but has the usual amplifier - with - negative - feedback. (2) The environment should be divided into (a) affected by the organism, (b) independent of the organism. (3) These give the fundamental control-flow relations. 4179, 4282, 4285
Natural Selection [67]: Genes of very long endurance will force those of shorter to protect them 4171.
4170 4171
4172 4173
4174 4175
Summary: Darwinian adaptation, and the multistable systems. 4197, 4201
4176 4177
Summary: Psychiatry of the information-block.
The Multistable System [60]: Separate clusters will tend to adapt in that way which gives minimal interaction, 4178.
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [81]: Derivation of DIAGRAM from six postulates, 4179.
4178 4179
Self-locking system definition
Summary: The self-locking system will also often be internally self-locking. 4229
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [82]: The self-locking system will often be, internally, self-coordinating 4181.
4180 4181
Summary: For rapid and successful adaptation in the Multistable System, δ, α,η and ζ must, as channels, have large capacities.
The Multistable System [61]: Channel capacity in multistable systems for rapid adaptation. 4182.
Summary: Origin of depression.
Summary: The regenerative abnormality as self-locking system. 4229
Psychiatric applications [21]: According to Russell Davis, melancholia may be a self-locking condition 4183.
Psychiatric applications [40]: The abnormal regenative circuit that possesses a machine as a self-locking system 4183.
4182 4183
Genes fundamental property
Memory and genes
Natural Selection [68]: Tobacco mosaic protein can exist in many forms; but the only form that can persist through the generations is the self-reproducing type, 4184.
Summary: Genes and memory. 4206
4184 4185
Summary: The essence of intelligence is selection. 4285
Intelligence equals power of selection
Summary: Chaos first becomes worth studying when a constancy appears.
Natural Selection [69]: What do we mean by the "start" of a system? 4187.
4186 4187
Arc must be active [?]
The Multistable System [62]: Lashley shows that most of the cells of the cortex must be active most of the time. 4188.
Summary: Lashley on learning.
The Multistable System [63]: Discriminative feedback of the multistable system. 4189, 4194.
Quotations [46]: Lashley says that the physiologists studies are very restricted, 4189.
4188 4189
4190 4191
Natural Selection [70]: Death acts as a cluster of genes, 4192.
Summary: More observations on discriminative feedback. (Foot of this page) 4201 4613
Summary: Sufficient to ensure high probability of'.
Oddments [40]: If I cannot prove that something is "sufficient", I may be able to prove that it is sufficient to give a high probability. 4193.
4192 4193
Reducibility in multistable systems
The Multistable System [63]: Discriminative feedback of the multistable system. 4189, 4194.
Summary: Discriminative feedback. 4225, 4514, 4613, 4831
Chess discriminative feedback
4194 4195
Summary: Discriminative feedback. 4216, 4201
Model use of
Summary: Trial and error by model has advantages, if the system can achieve it.
Army models in
4196 4197
Natural Selection [71]: Relation to multistable systems reviewed, 4198.
The Multistable System [64]: Relation to Darwinian evolution reviewed 4198.
4198 4199
Summary: Various ideas on Darwinian and multistable evolution.
Epistemology [13]: Study of very large systems 4201.
4200 4201
4202 4203
4204 4205
Summary: Review of the relation of Darwinian to multistable system. 4216, 4239
4206 4207
4208 4209
Summary: The conditioned reflex. 4424
Quotations [47]: Two principles in human nature reign: Self-love, to urge, and Reason, to restrain (Pope) 4210.
Quotations [48]: Pope, quotation on mania and melancholia 4211.
Quotations [49]: But strength of mind is Exercise, not Rest: The rising tempest puts in act the soul, Parts it may ravage, but preserves the whole. Alexander Pope 4211 [Of the Nature and State of Man, With Respect to Himself as an Individual]
Quotations [50]: Pope on the essential variables. 4211.
Quotations [51]: Dispersion. On different sensee different objects strike. Pope, 4211.
Quotations [56]: Quotation by Pope, 4211.
4210 4211
Personal notes [19]: How to explain by Dr Johnson, 4212.
4212 4213
Summary: Assume that the number of essential variables is large and given, and is much the same for all species. 4225
Summary: Feedback through the environment.
Environment as transducer
Environment as channel
The Multistable System [65]: Communication between part and part can occur thru the environment, 4215.
4214 4215
Coefficient use of
Selection on egg-laying
Natural Selection [72]: Selection for egg-laying, 4216.
The Multistable System [66]: Comparison with selection for egg-laying 4216.
Natural Selection [27]: Analogue of dispertion occuring [SHORTHAND] Darwinian adaptation. 4217.
4216 4217
4218 4219
Optimum selection for egg-laying
Discrimination in selection
4220 4221
Summary: Discriminative selection in poultry. 4233, 4239
Summary: The 'essential variable' of a watch that is to undergo trial for the Kew 'A' certificate.
Kew certificate
Summary: Maths is not logical. 4539
Logic nature of "proof"
Mathematics what is a proof?
Model statistics of
Proof nature of
Statistic necessity of
4222 4223
Summary: The necessity for selecting variables.
The Multistable System [67]: Relation of multistable system as defined in Design, to the system with environmental variables separated. 4225.
4224 4225
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [71]: The multistable system [SHORTHAND] essential variables are separated, 4226.
Summary: The multistable system as merely one of many.
Determinate multistable systems as determinate
Parameter system independent of
4226 4227
Summary: Definition of system 'independent' of a parameter.
Habituation theory of
Self-locking system conditions for
Transducer limit of
The Multistable System [68]: Conditions for a system to be self-locking, 4229.
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [83]: Conditions for self-locking, 4229.
4228 4229
Selection in transducer
4230 4231
Summary: Precise conditions under which a system is self-locking. 4242, 4275
Summary: Better proof of ultrastability.
Summary: We take 'things' invariants, and null-functions as fundamental because we must. 4146.2, 4235.9, 4943
Invariant why so important
Thing why important
The Multistable System [69]: Multistable system will first stabilise two of the null-functions, 4233.
The Multistable System [70]: Why the multistable system takes invarients as fundamental, 4233.
Epistemology [14]: Invariants are important because they can be adapted to at once, 4233.
4232 4233
Summary: With 'state' as fundamental, canonical equations exist and parts can be joined, by parameters. 4604
Summary: With 'state' as fundamental, 'independence' can be defined.
4234 4235
4236 4237
Threshold as gate
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [84]: [SHORTHAND] Canonical equations [when] system as does essential variables separated. 4238.
Summary: The field of [DIAGRAM]
Self-locking system in evolution
4238 4239
Genes self locking
Natural Selection [73]: How can the Darwinian system get self locked? 4240.
The Multistable System [72]: The present-day, advanced, multistable system probably keeps melting down its adaptations, 4240.
Summary: Darwinian and multistable systems. 4425, 4655
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
4240 4241
Speed (of adaptation)
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [59]: Design by me is not essentially different from design by a component, 4243.
4242 4243
Summary: How to get the time of adaptation to be reduced by the machine automatically. (Also) An ad hoc design is equivalent to a feedback loop with selection amplifier. 4246
Coding in dispersion
Dispersion can be learnt
Selection amplifier
Summary: The diagram is more general than it looks.
Summary: Getting information from a system.
Epistemology [15]: Entropy and observation, 4245.
4244 4245
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Natural Selection [74]: Speed of evolution, 4246.
Society [44]: Organisation of a super-society, 4246, 4264, 4270.
The Multistable System [73]: Factors affecting speed of adaptation, 4246.
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
4246 4247
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
4248 4249
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Model speed of
Play speed of
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Trial and error speed of
4250 4251
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Environment population of
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
4252 4253
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
4254 4255
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Summary: On the time taken by a large system to get adapted. 4264, 4515, 4560
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
4256 4257
Personal notes [20]: Reviews of "Design": 4258 Observer, 4309 Citizen, 4380 British Medical Journal, 4423 Journal of Consulting Psychology, 4423 McCulloch, 4446. Hibbert Journal, 4595 Galaxy, 4595 Scientific American, 4643 Occupational Psychology.
Design for a Brain Bronowski's review
4258 4259
Summary: Building an exceptionally un-intelligent machine.
Oddments [41]: How to build an exceptionally unintelligent machine, 4260.
Summary: Building a machine to display its powers of self adjustment.
Essential variables various orders
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [60]: How to design a self-adapting machine, [SHORTHAND] how to make it evolve, 4261.
4260 4261
Summary: Orders or levels of essential variables.
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [85]: Essentail variables of different orders, 4262.
Summary: Levels in social organisations and in the multistable system.
Natural Selection [75]: Essential variables in hierarchy, do different levels, 4263.
The Multistable System [74]: Mutistable system insufficiently general, as it has no levels, 4263.
4262 4263
Society [44]: Organisation of a super-society, 4246, 4264, 4270.
4264 4265
Jove's nod
Nod of Jove
Summary: Precise instructions for commercial organisation. 4269, 4273
Summary: Is the power of abstraction the same as the power of developing an hysterical blindness?
4266 4267
Model speed of
Summary: Play is an investment of surplus adaptation. 4271 (13), 4425
Play as investment
4268 4269
Levels of ultrastable systems
Society [44]: Organisation of a super-society, 4246, 4264, 4270.
4270 4271
Summary: Explicit instructions for commercial or social organisation. 4273
Chess organisation for
Constraint transformation of
Society [45]: Organisation of a chess-playing society, 4273.
4272 4273
Summary: Building a society for chess-playing.
4274 4275
Summary: A better way of stating my 'limit' theorems, and 'trend' theorems.
Intelligence comparison with power
4276 4277
Summary: Power and I.Q. have many similar properties. 4285
4278 4279
Summary: Appearance of a super-clever machine.
Levels of ultrastable systems
Society [46]: Noise in the sub-units of society, 4280.
Summary: 'Noise' when an Ultrastable System is built of Ultrastable Systems.
4280 4281
Summary: By serial adaptation, time falls to its logarithm.
Amplifier entropy of
Summary: The entropies of the variation-amplifier. 4285
4282 4283
Summary: Multiple, competing, essential variables lead to the same problem, whether occurring in one person or scattered among many. 4289
Conflict between essential variables
Essential variables conflict between
Essential variables dominance between
Levels of essential variables
Society [47]: The essential variables of the people in a society are as functionally joined as if in the person, 4284.
The Multistable System [75]: Levels between essential variables. 4284.
Psychiatric applications [26]: Conflict between two essential variables, 4284.
Intelligence as selection
Selection intelligence as
4284 4285
4286 4287
Amplifier nature of
Summary: A selection-amplifier, in the multiplying sense, is not wanted; but a selection-supplementer is. 4520
Psychiatric applications [22]: Possible cures when essential variables complete, 4289.
4288 4289
Summary: Therapeutic possibilities.
Canonical equations converting difference to differential equations
Differential equation conversion to difference equations
Differential equation to difference equations
Summary: Converting [x~=Ax] to x'=A'x
4290 4291
4291+01 4291+02

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