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Volume 17 of W. Ross Ashby's Journal
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1952
Volume 17
4291+03 4291+04
Knowing means 'controlling'
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [86]: 'Knowing' means controlling, 4292.
4292 4293
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [87]: Ultrastable system cannot stop until "Cortex" "knows" environment. 4294.
Summary: What 'knowing' a system means. Contrast 4315. 4429, 4438. Better stated in transitions 4305
4294 4295
Black box, problem of the Black box by differences
Difference replacing variable
Memory and unobservables
Unobservables replacement by other observations
Variable replaced by difference
4296 4297
Summary: Differences, at a finite time later, can replace variables. 4301, 5206
Personal notes [21]: I decide to write Introduction to Cybernetics 4298.
Personal notes [26]: The "Introduction to Cybernetics" was, apparently, written at Dad's suggestion. 4298.
4298 4299
Summary: Shannon's theory in its relation to the theory of the absolute system. 4312, 4396. Review 4345
Epistemology [16]: No one is a proper judge of whether he has or has not obtained "knowledge" 4301.
4300 4301
Summary: Effectiveness of parameters with finite substitution. Applied 4414
Dimension of parametric control
History examples
Memory in system
Parameter control exerted by
Summary: Examples of states that include history.
Summary: Knowledge must be tested by control. 4438
Information at runaway
Epistemology [17]: Knowledge must mean 'control' if it is to be objective, 4303.
4302 4303
Triunique mapping
Summary: One-one-one relation between parameter and transition. 4396
4304 4305
Circularity of my brain studying "the brain"
Epistemology [18]: Circularity of my theory, 4306.
Summary: My theory must become more circular, showing how an ultrastable brain is bound to work via the absolute system, etc. 4814
4306 4307
Design for a Brain Citizen's review
Personal notes [20]: Reviews of "Design": 4258 Observer, 4309 Citizen, 4380 British Medical Journal, 4423 Journal of Consulting Psychology, 4423 McCulloch, 4446. Hibbert Journal, 4595 Galaxy, 4595 Scientific American, 4643 Occupational Psychology.
4308 4309
Summary: Entropy with two outputs, and the transmission of information from system to system. 4312, 4429
Transmission from system to system
Epistemology [19]: "Knowing" as being at the right memory-state 4310.
Summary: Scientific knowledge is knowledge of a transformation. 4344, 4454
Group (mathematical) not all science
Epistemology [20]: All knowledge is knowledge of transformation, 4311.
4310 4311
Parameter dominating system
Transmission from system to system
Variety defined
4312 4313
Summary: 'Variety' in systems.
4314 4315
Summary: 'Variety' in systems. See page 4327
4316 4317
4318 4319
4320 4321
4322 4323
4324 4325
Transformation Monograph
4326 4327
Transformation Monograph
Closure defined
Group (mathematical) origin of
Transformation Monograph
4328 4329
Transformation Monograph
Variable defined
Transformation Monograph
Variety in image
4330 4331
Joining of systems
Transformation Monograph
Transformation Monograph
4332 4333
Transformation Monograph
Set or Ensemble of machines
Transformation Monograph
4334 4335
Capacity information
Transformation Monograph
Variety in state
4336 4336+01
Transformation Monograph
4336+02 4337
Transformation Monograph
Variety theorem on limits
Transformation Monograph
4338 4339
Impulse disturbances reduced to
Transformation Monograph
Transformation Monograph
4340 4341
Transformation Monograph
Transformation Monograph
4342 4343
Machine definition
Transformation Monograph
Set or Ensemble of machines
Transformation Monograph
4344 4345
Entropy limit of
Transformation Monograph
Transformation Monograph
4346 4347
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
Answer nature of
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
4348 4349
Control nature of
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
4350 4351
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
4352 4353
Memory during control
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
4354 4355
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
4356 4357
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
4358 4359
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
4360 4361
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
4362 4363
Transformation Monograph
Epistemology [21]: Nature of knowledge and control, Review { 4348 - 4364 }
Feedback and spread of variety
Transformation Monograph
4364 4365
Transformation Monograph
Triunique = bilinear
Bilinear system
Transformation Monograph
4366 4367
Transformation Monograph
Transformation Monograph
4368 4369
Transformation Monograph
4370 4371
1953
Transmission from system to system
Summary: Variety in state accumulates.
4372 4373
Summary: Uniform activity in the parameters drives down variety in state.
Homogeneity by parameters
Society [48]: An evolving system needs long-term memories as well as short, 4374.
The Multistable System [76]: An evolving system requires long term memories as well as short, 4374.
Summary: Long-term memories.
Basin
4374 4375
Summary: On basins.
Summary: 'Delay' need not be rejected as a basic concept.
Delay (in substitution) as basic concepts
Natural Selection [76]: Evolution as progression to independance of Brownian movement, 4377.
4376 4377
Summary: Note on Darwinism.
Summary: 'Experiment' = 'competition'. 4384
Competition equals trials
Design for a Brain British Medical Journal review
Experiment = competition
Trial and error equals competition
Society [49]: Trial = competition = experiment, 4380.
Personal notes [20]: Reviews of "Design": 4258 Observer, 4309 Citizen, 4380 British Medical Journal, 4423 Journal of Consulting Psychology, 4423 McCulloch, 4446. Hibbert Journal, 4595 Galaxy, 4595 Scientific American, 4643 Occupational Psychology.
4380 4381
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Speed (of adaptation)
Summary: There is a maximal speed at which evolution or adaptation can proceed. The best one can do is to get near the maximum. 4384
Alpha rhythm and cell's activities
Threshold and a-rhythm
4382 4383
Summary: The α-rhythm.
Dispersion and alpha rhythm
Summary: Speed of adaptation can be achieved only by trials and comparisons.
Homeostasis basic theory
Regulation basic theory
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [88]: Speed of adaptation demands trials, 4385.
4384 4385
Requisite Variety, Law of proof by inverse
Summary: Regulation (destruction of information) requires extra information. Continuous form 4395, 4658
4386 4387
Summary: Lack of variety and step-function are equivalent. 4439, 4440
Constraint and step-function
Protocol constraint in
Step function = lack of variety
Summary: Apparent inertia in adaptation.
Homeostasis transients [no]
Regulation transients in
Transient defined
Natural Selection [77]: Fisher's explanation of apparent inertia in evolution, 4389.
4388 4389
Transient maximal length
4390 4391
Summary: 'Transient' translated into non-metric terms. 4644 (vol.18)
Summary: Gödel's coding. Theorem 5086
Summary: Digital and analogue.
Computing machines digital and analogue
4392 4393
Summary: Quotation showing gross ignorance of the principles of organisation, by one who should know better.
Society [50]: Example showing present ignorance about organisation, 4394.
Summary: Two functions combining to an invariant. 4658
Homeostasis continuous form
Invariant [no] homeostasis
Regulation continuous form
4394 4395
Transducer inverse of
Machine non-singular
Transducer non-singular
4396 4397
4398 4399
Coding theory of
Summary: The absolute system as coder and decoder. Extended 4414, 4461
4400 4401
Immunity defined
Self-locking system conditions for
4402 4403
Habituation theory of
4404 4405
Basin selection of
4406 4407
4408 4409
Summary: Limiting basin when determinate machine is affected occasionally by impulse-operate. 4524, 5512
Summary: Proof of theorem
Summary: When many related theorems are possible, pick on one and prove it quite rigorously; the exact details will then show the exact effect of each proposed variation.
Oddments [42]: When many variations are possible, pick on one to prove it vigorously; the effect of modifications can then easily be seen. 4411.
4410 4411
Summary: (An addendum)
Fixation Maier on
Input trasition as input
Transition probability as input
4412 4413
4414 4415
Summary: Canonical equations of the decoder.
Shorthand started
Personal notes [22]: I start shorthand, 4416, I stop it, 4446, List of symbols, 5108.
Amplifier and loss of information
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [62]: Magnification causes loss of information, 4417.
4416 4417
Summary: Magnification and dispersion from the point of view of information. 4422
Summary: If information is to be conserved, linearity must be achieved everywhere.
Dispersion theory of
Linear system importance
The Multistable System [78]: Dispersion changes variety in value to variety in position. 4418.
Psychiatric applications [23]: Messages heavily contaminated with noise may be best ignored. 4419.
4418 4419
Summary: Proof that messages that are heavily contaminated with noise are best ignored.
Summary: Necessary conditions for a system to have resting states that differ only at a few variables.
4420 4421
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [63]: Effect of magnification in DAMS, 4422.
Summary: Effect of magnification on behaviour.
Design for a Brain review
Self-locking system as invariant
Personal notes [20]: Reviews of "Design": 4258 Observer, 4309 Citizen, 4380 British Medical Journal, 4423 Journal of Consulting Psychology, 4423 McCulloch, 4446. Hibbert Journal, 4595 Galaxy, 4595 Scientific American, 4643 Occupational Psychology.
4422 4423
Summary: Invariants of a dynamic system with parameters.
Summary: The Conditioned Reflex as a loss of power to transmit. 4430
Invariant "self-locking" as
Invariant "stable" as
Reflex, conditioned as loss of transmission
The Conditioned Reflex [43]: Conditioned reflex as loss of transmition, 4424.
Summary: Distinguish variety in design from variety during performance. Continued 4427 top, 4427, 4428, 4431
Genes more fundamental
4424 4425
Arc competition among
Order of time
Organisation implies constancy
The Conditioned Reflex [42]: The multistable system probably promotes competition between it's component arcs, 4426.
Design amount of
4426 4427
Summary: A system can "know" by having the right values of variables or parameters. 4438
Knowing as selection of vector
Summary: When a designer makes a machine of n states and a parameter-combinations, he puts in variety of a.n.log n This is its intrinsic content. 4463, 4704
Information in machine
4428 4429
Summary: Information that can come from a machine.
Graph definition
Machine falls in capacity
Epistemology [22]: Estimates of how fast knowledge can be got from a machine 4430.
Entropy and information
4430 4431
Summary: Trial and error in reaction to shock.
Summary: Information in printed English.
Information per word
Memory information in
4432 4433
4434 4435
Relation binary
Summary: Riguet on binary relations. 4470, 4498, 4566, 4581, 4604, 4632
4436 4437
Prediction as regulation
Epistemology [23]: 'Prediction' and 'control' are forms of regulation, 4438.
Summary: Prediction and control are just forms of regulation.
Summary: Wave as constraint; travelling immobility. 4440, 4943
Constraint wave as
Thing as constraint
Waves as entity
4438 4439
Summary: Way of behaving, constraint, thing, part-function.
Constraint examples
Dimension and constraint
Rank and constraint
4440 4441
Constraint meaning of
Summary: More on "constraint". 4553, 4564
4442 4443
Entropy computing
Information computing
Summary: Computing entropy.
4444 4445
Summary: Shorthand has more disadvantages than advantages. List of symbols:- End of this volume and 5108
Design for a Brain review
Shorthand stopped
Personal notes [20]: Reviews of "Design": 4258 Observer, 4309 Citizen, 4380 British Medical Journal, 4423 Journal of Consulting Psychology, 4423 McCulloch, 4446. Hibbert Journal, 4595 Galaxy, 4595 Scientific American, 4643 Occupational Psychology.
Personal notes [22]: I start shorthand, 4416, I stop it, 4446, List of symbols, 5108.
Summary: Every material system is equivalent to a transducer and a noise-source. [deleted]
4446 4447
Summary: One formulation covers "design" "input" and "noise". (Next section) 4449
Design nature of
Information in machine
Epistemology [24]: Distinction between 'design' and 'input' 4449.
4448 4449
Black box, problem of the first considered
Input nature of
4450 4451
4452 4453
Summary: Information in a machine. 4701, 4847
Black box, problem of the theory of
Quantum theory and Black Box
Epistemology [25]: Theory of Black Box, 4455.
4454 4455
Algebra Black Box as
Machine as an algebra
4456 4457
Black box, problem of the isomorphism
Invariant of Black Box
Isomorphism in Black Box
Group (mathematical) not all science
4458 4459
Design within Black Box
Transducer inverse of
4460 4461
Summary: Outline of the theory of the Black Box. 4480
Design nature of
4462 4463
Summary: What "designing" a machine means abstractly.
4464 4465
4466 4467
Summary: The variation of the essential variables must be supplemented. 4482, 4581
4468 4469
Summary: A single machine contains many "informations", most of which do not interact with the others. Example 4577
Information two need not interact
Summary: Joining absolute systems without metric. Example 4473, 4498, 4733
Joining general theory
4470 4471
Summary: Must every system drift to the condition of maximal internal separation? 4500, 4524
Summary: Cap or intersection as selective operator.
Summary: Unsolved problem. Solved 5009
Operator n (intersection) as selector
Selection by n (intersection operator)
4472 4473
Summary: Anything that can have variety is really a set.
Variety implies a set
Distinguishability equivalence relation
Epistemology [26]: Indistinguishability is an equivalence relationship, 4475.
4474 4475
4476 4477
Algebra Black Box as
Black box, problem of the homomorphism in
Compatibility machine and equivalence relation
Equivalence relation in machine
Homomorphism applied incorrectly
Quotient machine by indistinguishability
Epistemology [27]: Black Box may admit a homomorphism 4478.
Summary: The relation "observer A cannot distinguish x from y"; homomorphism. 4501, 6254
4478 4479
Summary: Are there "levels" of design? 4595
Design nature of
Summary: The Black Box is a set.
Summary: Randomisation as a way of passing a message that is no message.
Black box, problem of the is a set
Random coding
Set or Ensemble Black Box as
Epistemology [28]: The Black Box is a set 4481.
Epistemology [52]: Dispersion is used by the experimenter in recording his results, 4481.
4480 4481
Summary: The whole cannot be at a resting state unless every part is are a resting state. 4508, 4581, Example 2916.7, Markov chain 4904
Summary: How the homeostat works. 4520, 4538, 4581, 4701
Veto in equilibria
4482 4483
Quotient machine by indistinguishability
Epistemology [29]: Homomorphisms in the Black Box, 4484.
4484 4485
4486 4487
Ideal (mathematical) homomorphism in machines
4488 4489
4490 4491
Lattice of homomorphisms
Summary: Partial knowledge; equivalent relation between machines. 4729, 4777, 5001
4492 4493
Summary: More constraints means fewer possibilities but more discoverable patterns, 4504
Summary: In set theory, remember that inequalities are likely to have cybernetic applications. 4503
Asymmetry importance of
Constraint generates pattern
Pattern (in general) as constraint
Summary: Set theory and its use.
Set or Ensemble set theory
4494 4495
Summary: 'Large' and 'small' machines.
Oddments [43]: Large small machines, and small large machines 4496.
Summary: Logic and theory.
Quotient machine gas laws
4496 4497
Summary: Homomorphism in machines.
Mapping joining systems
4498 4499
Summary: Joining machines.
Continuity is non-metrical
Metric by clasification
Set or Ensemble set theory
Topology in machines
4500 4501
Distinguishability in brain
Information conservation in chain
4502 4503
Summary: Observations on set theory.
Structure by constraint
Algebra Black Box as
Ultrastability formal proof
4504 4505
4506 4507
Veto in equilibria
Summary: Principle of ultrastability stated more vigorously. Better still 4581
Ergodism and experience
Ergodism von Neumann's theorem
4508 4509
Summary: Ergodicity and loss of information.
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [64]: DAMS described as a shuffling machine 4510.
Summary: Tactics for getting DAMS better aligned.
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [65]: Strategy for getting DAMS better aligned 4511.
4510 4511
Algebra machine and internal composition
Summary: Machines are related to the algebraic laws of internal composition, as well as those of external.
4512 4513
Constraint and departments
Structure as partial knowledge
Society [51]: Organisation between departments as partial solution of the problem 4515.
4514 4515
4516 4517
Summary: Built-in structure in an adapting system implies that part of the solution has already been obtained. 4599, 4600
4518 4519
Selection amplifier
Summary: Amount of selection and ultrastability. 4582.6, 4904
Unsolved problems [15]: Paradox of which is the more important, permanence or change 4521.
4520 4521
Genes reproduction of
Information on chromosomes
Summary: How chromosomes reproduce themselves. High survival power.
Natural Selection [78]: Reproduction of genes; extra survival power given by combination in pairs 4523.
4522 4523
Disturbance habituation to
Habituation theory of
Habituation theory of
4524 4525
Habituation theory of
Habituation theory of
4526 4527
Habituation theory of
Habituation theory of
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [66]: Habituation in DAMS, theory of, 4529.
4528 4529
Habituation theory of
Habituation theory of
4530 4531
Habituation theory of
Essential variables relation to selection amplifier
Habituation theory of
4532 4533
Habituation theory of
Summary: Habituation. 4559, 4596, 4609, 4762, 5512
Habituation theory of
4534 4535
Summary: Formal proof that, if a set is stable, no state in it can lead ever to a state outside the set.
Summary: Power for adaptation. (See next page) 4583
Adaptation motive power for
Entropy as prime mover
4536 4537
Summary: Adaptation needs a transducer between the prime (statistical) mover and the useful result. 4583
Summary: Markov processes in machines.
Markov process / chain in machine
4538 4539
Markov process / chain in chain of machines
Markov process / chain in machine
Markov process / chain in machine
4540 4541
Markov process / chain in machine
Markov process / chain in machine
4542 4543
Markov process / chain in machine
Summary: Markoff process in machinery. 4671
Summary: The human brain may not be optimal for inclusion in computer.
Markov process / chain in machine
Society [52]: The human brain may not be an optimal component 4545.
4544 4545
Trial and error sub-trials
The Multistable System [79]: Trials within trials are an important advanced method 4546.
Summary: Trials within trials, or the admission of variation into sub-units of an ultrastable system.
Society [53]: Trials may [be] conducted as details within larger trial only if functionally disconnected while they are going on. 4547.
4546 4547
Reducibility example
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [89]: Example of how the existence of a constraint can shorten a search, 4548.
Summary: Examples of how reducibility shortens time of search. 4552, 4563, 4650, 4948
4548 4549
Canonical form all problems
Problems canonical form
Epistemology [30]: Reduction of all problems to canonical form 4550.
4550 4551
Summary: All problems can be reduced to a canonical form. 4560, 4585
Model speed of
Society [54]: Value of using models 4555.
4552 4555
Summary: The method of models, for quicker searching. Review 4560-4575
Isomorphism use of
Pattern (in general) use of
4556 4557
Summary: Isomorphism between machines.
Summary: Distinguishability correspond to dependence.
Dependence = distinguishability
Distinguishability and dependence
Distinguishability tends to fall
The Multistable System [80]: The theory dependencies is that of distinguishabilities 4559.
Epistemology [31]: Distinguishability is related to dependence 4559.
4558 4559
Summary: A Review on "Speed of Adaptation" with special reference to that of a Problem-Solving System. ... it is now possble to build a system, or machine, of more than human intelligence.
Summary: Contents
§1 Introduction 4560
§2 The method of models 4562
§3 Constraints on the operands 4563
§4 Constraints on the transformation:
  (i) Reducibility
    (a) What is Reducibility? 4564
    (b) The effect of Reducibility 4567
  (ii) Continuity
    (a) What is Continuity?4568
    (b) The effect of Continuity 4569
§5 Selection by components 4570
§6 The Maximal Speed 4574

Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Constraint effects of
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Constraint effects of
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
4560 4561
Summary: §2 The method of models
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Constraint effects of
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
Summary: §3 Constraints on the operands A and B
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Constraint effects of
Relation defines subset
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
4562 4563
Summary: §4 Constraints on the transformation:
(i) Reducibility
  (a) What is reducibility?

Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Constraint effects of
Reducibility reviewed
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Constraint effects of
Reducibility reviewed
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
4564 4565
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Constraint effects of
Reducibility reviewed
Reducibility in set theory
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
Summary: (b) The use of reducibility
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Constraint effects of
Reducibility reviewed
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
4566 4567
Summary: (ii)Continuity
  (a) What is continuity?

Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Constraint effects of
Continuity as constraint
Reducibility reviewed
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
Summary: (b) Value of continuity
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Chess discontinuity in
Constraint effects of
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
4568 4569
Summary: §5 Selection by components
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Constraint effects of
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Constraint effects of
Selection as application
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
4570 4571
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Constraint effects of
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Constraint effects of
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
4572 4573
Summary: §6 The Maximal Speed of Adaptation
Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Constraint effects of
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
Summary: (1) A first estimate of how long a problem will take in the solving might be given by the product of the possibilities in its components, assuming independence.
(2) This is a bad estimator, being biassed. It is in fact an upper bound of the true value.
(3) By the use of models the process of search can often be hastened.
(4) Often the components are not independent, and only a portion of the product-space need be searched. Various factors (described) may have this effect.
(5) Selection by components may be possible. It reduces the time to its logarithm.
(6) There is a minimal time for the solution of a problem (or adaptation): it is the time that the fastest isomorphic system can get the answer out in binary notation. 4650, 4668

Adaptation speeding up adaptation
Constraint effects of
Speed (of adaptation) of learning
Society [55]: Methods of getting solution more quickly { 4560 - 4575 }
4574 4575
Topology necessity for
Summary: Poincaré on the study of functions.
Information two need not interact
Linkage
Meccano linkage
4576 4577
Summary: Two messages in a channel need not interact. 4641
Random movements giving trigonometrical equation
Summary: Emission of "cos2x + sin2x =1" randomly.
Selection quantity of
4578 4579
Summary: Two agents may select the same element, yet differ widely in their degrees of selection. 4583, 4598
Amplifier and selection
Summary: An even more rigorous statement of ultrastablity. 4882 4467 4508 4520
Ultrastability formal proof
4580 4581
Summary: Rigorous statement of ultrastablity. 4881, 4904, 5046
4582 4583
Summary: Relation of essential variables to selection-amplifier. 4586
Problems solving problems
Selection of solution
Solution (to a problem) finding
4584 4585
Summary: What is 'problem solving'?
4586 4587
Set or Ensemble real object as element
4588 4588+01
Summary: Every real object is an element in an indefinitely large number of sets. Which sets are to be considered must first be defined.
4588+02 4589
4590 4591
Dynamic system game as dynamic system
Games as dynamic system
Strategy in dynamic system
The Multistable System [85]: The theory of games as a chapter in that of the multistable system. 4592.
Summary: Neumann's theory of games translated into my theory of systems. 4650
4592 4593
Summary: Stability checked.
Summary: Review of the book. [Design for a Brain]
Design as input
Design for a Brain review in 'Galaxy'
Equilibrium proper definition
Personal notes [20]: Reviews of "Design": 4258 Observer, 4309 Citizen, 4380 British Medical Journal, 4423 Journal of Consulting Psychology, 4423 McCulloch, 4446. Hibbert Journal, 4595 Galaxy, 4595 Scientific American, 4643 Occupational Psychology.
4594 4595
Summary: 'Equilibrium' refers to a state, 'stability' to the region around the state.
Basin
Traffic principle nature
Summary: Properties of metric-less system. 4623
Continuity as constraint
Information in stimulus
Stimulus information in
4596 4597
Summary: The fullest description of a 'stimulus' is still inadequate to define its content of information.
Summary: In comparing an ultrastable (mechanical) solver with Man we must take care that they start with comparable amounts of prior knowledge.
Oddments [44]: The ultrstable system studied by me is one that starts by knowing almost nothing; it starts therefore somewhat handicapped 4599.
4598 4599
Summary: Ways of getting effective discriminative feedback are to be found specially, for each type of system, not as a general problem. 4613, 4641, 5548
Control in set theory
Dimension and constraint
4600 4601
Summary: Control, and part-function, in terms of set theory. 4604
Part-function in set theory
Step function in set-theory
Summary: Incentives in the ultrastable system.
Incentive in society
Variable can be non-metric
Society [57]: Incentives in social organisation 4603.
4602 4603
Summary: Practically all my concepts are non-metrical.
Canonical equations in set theory
Independence non-metric form
Null-function can be non-metric
Set or Ensemble my concepts in set-theory
Summary: Having several basins has nothing to do with being divisible into parts. Noticed again 5502
Basin
General Staff history of
Reducibility and basins
Society [58]: The German General Staff 4605.
4604 4605
Summary: Organisation of the German General Staff. 6534
Evolution reviewed
Natural Selection [80]: Relation between multistable systems and evolving genetic system reviewed, { 4606 - 4620 }
Personal notes [23]: Re-read my notes completely from page 1000 on, 4606.
Summary: Is the Darwinian system a specialised one? 4608, 4613
Evolution reviewed
Natural Selection [80]: Relation between multistable systems and evolving genetic system reviewed, { 4606 - 4620 }
4606 4607
Summary: How much of a field should be known?
Essential variables in Darwinian system
Evolution reviewed
Natural Selection [80]: Relation between multistable systems and evolving genetic system reviewed, { 4606 - 4620 }
Summary: In Darwinian evolution; the part of essential variables is played by those parts whose disequilibrium leads to widespread disturbance around them.
Evolution reviewed
Natural Selection [80]: Relation between multistable systems and evolving genetic system reviewed, { 4606 - 4620 }
4608 4609
Evolution reviewed
Natural Selection [80]: Relation between multistable systems and evolving genetic system reviewed, { 4606 - 4620 }
Evolution reviewed
Self-locking system in set theory
Natural Selection [80]: Relation between multistable systems and evolving genetic system reviewed, { 4606 - 4620 }
4610 4611
Summary: Self locking and self-reproducing systems in the terms of set theory.
Evolution reviewed
Property reproducing
Reproduction in set-theory
Natural Selection [80]: Relation between multistable systems and evolving genetic system reviewed, { 4606 - 4620 }
Summary: Precise statement of the fact that instability is infectious.
Summary: The general solution of the problem of the least discriminative feedback is - that there is no general solution. Every problem has its own optimum, and finding the optimum is a part of the problem. 4600, 5548
Summary: Am still totally unable to write Darwinian ideas in any rigorous way, in spite of many motes ever since 4051.
Evolution reviewed
Natural Selection [80]: Relation between multistable systems and evolving genetic system reviewed, { 4606 - 4620 }
4612 4613
Evolution reviewed
Natural Selection [80]: Relation between multistable systems and evolving genetic system reviewed, { 4606 - 4620 }
Summary: What Darwin really did do. 4618
Evolution reviewed
Natural Selection [80]: Relation between multistable systems and evolving genetic system reviewed, { 4606 - 4620 }
4614 4615
Summary: Darwin's actual theory.
Evolution reviewed
Natural Selection [80]: Relation between multistable systems and evolving genetic system reviewed, { 4606 - 4620 }
Summary: What does "endurance" mean?
Evolution reviewed
Natural Selection [80]: Relation between multistable systems and evolving genetic system reviewed, { 4606 - 4620 }
4616 4617
Evolution reviewed
Natural Selection [80]: Relation between multistable systems and evolving genetic system reviewed, { 4606 - 4620 }
Summary: Darwin's method for the study of complex systems. 4655
Evolution reviewed
Natural Selection [80]: Relation between multistable systems and evolving genetic system reviewed, { 4606 - 4620 }
Epistemology [33]: Darwin's method for the study of complex systems 4619.
4618 4619
Summary: Darwin's theory and that of the multistable system are related by intersecting in a set of theorems that contains both.
Summary: How to develop the theory of "knowing".
Evolution reviewed
Knowing theory of
Natural Selection [80]: Relation between multistable systems and evolving genetic system reviewed, { 4606 - 4620 }
Natural Selection [81]: Darwinian systems and the multistable system both use some of the theorums in the theory of large systems, 4620.
The Multistable System [86]: The multistable system resembles the Darwinian because both share large numbers of common theorums in the much larger theory of systems. 4620.
4620 4621
Summary: How a machine transforms a set of representative points in its field.
Equilibrium proper definition
Stability defined in set theory
Stable set defined
Dynamic system as a stable set
4622 4623
Summary: "Stability"defined. A "machine" is a stable sub-set. 4630, 4632, 4643, 4656, 4795
Summary: Every set in a machine generates a stable set that contains it. 4630
Accessible state
Stable set generated by set
Variety in set theory
4624 4625
Summary: Studying variety with the methods of the theory of sets.
4626 4627
Mapping stimulus as
Operator stimulus as
Stimulus as application
Summary: Repetition of a well-defined stimulus simply creates a new, compound, operator, that has stable sets with new, interesting, properties. 4630, 4632
4628 4629
Mapping product mapping
Operator product operator
Stimulus compound
Summary: Stable sets of a product application. 4762
4630 4631
Basin algebraic definition
Basin algebraic form
Summary: "Basin" defined algebraically. Better 4743
Constitution (political) need for
Society [59]: Cromwell on the necessity for a constitution, 4633.
4632 4633
Summary: Strategy. 4640
Optimum Yates' principle
Strategy money in research
Additive adaptation costing and
Costing as strategy
Society [60]: Costing as method 4635.
4634 4635
Homeostasis 'costing' as method
Regulation "costing" as method
4636 4637
Quotations [7]: "Out of the mass of interesting data which is available in any business, how much is worth collecting? The answer: Only that which can influence policy" Edwards, 4638.
Null-function ignorable
4638 4639
Summary: The costing accountant and the strategy of control.
Discrimination in selection
Model in accountancy
Summary: Mechanism for simultaneous adaptation. 4577, 5417
Adaptation of parts
The Multistable System [87]: Parts of multistable system can adapt simultaneously provided channel width is adequate and a disperser is provided. 4641.
4640 4641
Summary: "Maximising profits" as a "keeping within limits."
Essential variables maximising
Society [61]: When limits of essential variables are 0 and + 8, and random disturbances are likely, best strategy is to make the value maximal, as with profits, 4642.
Society [62]: Self locking by, Standing Orders 4642.
Summary: Self-locking in society.
Group (mathematical) not all science
Self-locking system in Parliament
Stable set in science
Standing Orders self-locking
Personal notes [20]: Reviews of "Design": 4258 Observer, 4309 Citizen, 4380 British Medical Journal, 4423 Journal of Consulting Psychology, 4423 McCulloch, 4446. Hibbert Journal, 4595 Galaxy, 4595 Scientific American, 4643 Occupational Psychology.
4642 4643
4643+01 4643+02
4643+03 4643+04

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