Home | Journal | Bookshelf | Index | Other | Timeline | Previous ◄ ► Next | Help | Copyright

Volume 21 of W. Ross Ashby's Journal
is loading...


1957
Volume 21
5693+03 5693+04
Force meaning in psychology
5694 5695
Summary: What is meant by "force" in psychology.
Summary: When a set is called for, refuse to answer the question: which of these elements is the "actual" one?
Spectacles, transforming
The Multistable System [126]: Taylor's experiments with reversing spectacles showing the disorderliness of the multistable system. 5697.
5696 5697
Summary: Evidence that learned reactions are related to one another in a primarily random way, order appearing only when the environment selects or enforces it.
Laterality Taylor's experiments on
Summary: Example showing how adaptation must be measured against a defined class of problems.
5698 5699
Summary: "Transfer of patterns" demands only a transfer of values.
Learning from another
5700 5701
Summary: The structure that is necessary and sufficient if the whole's later behaviour is to be much dependent on its earlier experience. (Note that all this is equivalent to saying that the system has memory)
Habituation operator matters, machine not
Summary: In habituation I have shown that the operator does matter and the system does not (within broad limits).
5702 5703
Equilibrium under compound operators
Habituation as equilibrium
Operator compound operator and equilibrium
5704 5705
Summary: Implications of "going to equilibrium."
Equilibrium and conditioned reflex
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
5706 5707
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
Summary: When the alternation of two stimuli to a machine reaches equilibrium, the two effects and the equilibrium are related. 5724, 5729
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
5708 5709
Confluant and topology
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
Topology in machines
Summary: Every absolute system defines a topology, the "confluential", over the set of states. This topology may be similar to some other topology, well known over same set.
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
5710 5711
Equivalence relation and topology
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
Topology and equivalence relation
Summary: For general guidance, one can think of a "topology" as a more complex equivalence relation, allowing degrees of "equivalence."
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
5712 5713
Summary: The intermediate degree of the conditioned response being brought "towards" the unconditioned
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
5714 5715
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
5716 5716+01
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
5716+02 5717
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
5718 5719
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
Summary: Basic theory of the conditioned reflex
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
5720 5721
Summary: Some experiments on my theory.
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
5722 5723
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
5724 5725
Summary: Simultaneous presentation does not give conditioning. 5730, 5827, 5862
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
Summary: A very new way of producing "conditioning".
Reflex, conditioned as compound equilibrium
5726 5727
Summary: Constraints are found by applying information-losing transformations and seeing whether they are still acceptable to the essential variables. 5756
Constraint finding
Information advantages of losing
5728 5729
Summary: If two forcing operators alternate, they will lose their distinction while forcing.
Summary: Cycles under compound operators. 5734, 5893, 6088
Habituation cycles in
5730 5731
Summary: Arcs are necessary because, for adaptation to progress cumulatively, stores are necessary to hold the information that came from the essential variables. 5746
Arc necessity for
5732 5733
The Multistable System [127]: Multistable system, as defined in "Design for a Brain", is assumed to have its feedbacks discriminating. 5735.
The Multistable System [128]: Old definition of multistable system reviewed ten years later. 5735.
5734 5735
Summary: The Multistable System of D.f.B. (Design for a Brain) is one whose corrective feedback has already been made discriminating. D.f.B. shows how a system will behave after discriminative feedback has been established in it. 5746, 5766.7
5736 5737
Arc and habituation
Habituation and arcs
Summary: How habituation will show in a multistable system of arcs.
5738 5739
Summary: An arc may "see" only a certain few out of a sequence of stimuli; these few are then "adjacent" for that arc, and may have unexpected effect, e.g. habituation. 5746
Summary: If a variable is forced to a value, perhaps it does not matter whether the forcing is "discreet" or via an ultrastable, vetoing feedback.
Forcing a variable forcing homeostat
Constraint in uncertainty analysis
Uncertainty analysis Garner and McGill
5740 5741
Summary: Variety, uncertainty analysis, and information. 5794, 5820
5742 5743
Arc essentials of arcs
DAMS Mark II (Dispersive and Multistable System) [12]: Basic necessities for an arc, or store, 5744.
5744 5745
Summary: Basic functional necessities for an arc, or store.
Personal notes [33]: Decision to make DAMS, Mark II. 5747.
5746 5747
Personal notes [31]: Reviews of the "Introduction to Cybernetics". 5531, 5582, 5630, 5748.
5748 5748+01
Constraint reducibility as
Reducibility degree of constraint
5748+02 5753
Summary: Any restriction on one part of a system is likely to show as "structure" in another part of it, Reducibility exemplifier.
5754 5755
Summary: Axiom that the "typical member" identifies the sub-set and the constraint.
Constraint identified by 'typical member'
Accumulation (of adaptations) mechanism necessary
Adaptation mechanism for cumulative adaptation
5756 5757
Summary: Layout for accumulative adaptation. 5766.7, 5775
Arc ? many
5758 5759
Summary: Additive mechanisms in the brain. 5763, 5765.1, 5766.1, 5768
Cortex as store
Critical surface variation of
Signal in ultrastable system
5760 5761
Summary: The problem of the moving critical states. 5778
Summary: Psychiatric application of the system that adapts additively.
Psychiatric applications [94]: Symptoms produced by attention at the gating or distributing mechanism. 5763.
5762 5763
Summary: Importance of information whose changes occur only at long intervals.
DAMS Mark II (Dispersive and Multistable System) [13]: Long-term, slow-changing, information can act as director and localiser of short-term, quick-changing information. 5764.
Summary: Psychiatric application.
Summary: Operational meaning of "correct translation".
Retroactive inhibition quantative estimate
Translation test for correctness
Psychiatric applications [95]: Injury that should lead to increased retroactive inhibition. 5765.
5764 5765
Summary: Mechanisms for memory may well vastly outnumber those for action
Memory may far exceed action
Summary: Essential variables for adaptation by accumulation.
Accumulation (of adaptations) essential variables for
Essential variables for accumulation of adaptation
5766 5767
Summary: Complexity of remembering old adaptations is independent of complexity within one adaptation.
Accumulation (of adaptations) number of variables
Cortex size of
Arc ? many
5768 5769
Serial adaptation steered by environment
Summary: Serial adaptation, and flow to the step-mechanisms.
5770 5771
Step-mechanism ? necessary
5772 5773
Summary: My proof (that adaptation demands step-functions) demands in fact only that there must be entities having a step-function aspect. This aspect may be one that is by no means obvious in the real object. 5781.7
Accumulation (of adaptations) in multistable system
The Multistable System [129]: Multistable system re-specified to separate the aspect of :- (1) Having many almost independent essential variables. (2) Having SFs (step functions) separated into sets. 5775.
5774 5775
Summary: Design of DAMS. (Corrected 5778) 5779
Summary: I may now use design and regulation freely in building DAMS, provided I admit its introduction.
Ancillary regulations may be invoked
5776 5777
Summary: Layout for DAMS, and for the system that accumulates adaptations.
Arc must they interact?
5778 5779
Summary: Under certain conditions, communication between arcs is necessary.
Summary: So far I have used essential variables as little more than links determining how the environment affects the step-mechanism.
Design for a Brain second edition started
5780 5781
Summary: My claim that step-functions are necessary, must be made conditional.
Step-mechanism ? necessary
5782 5783
Summary: Step-functions have done their job and may now retire.
Operator as communication
5784 5785
Coefficient of stability
Equilibrium index of
5786 5787
1958
Summary: Index [?] of degree of stability of a whole, and its behaviour. 5800
Organisation strategy for studying
Strategy for complex system
5788 5789
Organisation irreducible forms
Reducibility irreducible systems
5790 5791
Information more than 1 man-lifetime
Regulation and reducibility
5792 5793
Summary: Some systems are not to be understood, or controlled, by the amount of information that can be accepted in 1 man lifetime. 5810
Information direction is irrelevant
Summary: The symmetrical relation between transmitter and receiver, of McGill and Garner and Woodward, is: between two variables' variations a constraint has been perceived. 5820
Constraint information as
Protocol constraint in
5794 5795
Summary: Present position of the machine for solving super-problems.
Evolution within computer
Number competition between
Survival within computer
Zero survival of
Natural Selection [87]: Competition between Odds and Evens under multiplication 5797.
5796 5797
Summary: Survival of the fittest, demonstrated in a computer. 5801, 5828, 5961
Isomorphism in mathmatical physics
Model in physics, Synge on
5798 5799
Polystable defined
The Multistable System [3]: (Much of this section probably refers to the polystable - not distinguished till 5800)
The Multistable System [130]: Multistable system distinguished from polystable. 5800.
Summary: Shrinkage to equilibrium, and adaptation to the operator that produces the shrinkage, are equivalent. 5961
Adaptation to any operator
Transformation adaptation to any
5800 5801
5802 5803
Convergence (of lines of behaviour) quantity of
5804 5805
Adaptation rate of
Summary: How fast does a system adapt to an operator? "Convergency".
5806 5807
Computing machines spontaneous generation in
Intelligence spontaneous generation
Life spontaneous generation in a computer
Reproduction as specialised adaptation
Spontaneous generation of life in computer
Summary: Spontaneous generation of brain in a computer. 5812, 5816.7, 5958
Reducibility irreducible systems
5808 5809
Summary: Another example of how a large, and irreducible, quantity of information may be necessary.
Essential variables outside organism
5810 5811
Summary: A variable may be essential to an organism and yet outside of it.
Computing machines spontaneous generation in
Intelligence spontaneous generation
Essential variables abstractly
Life spontaneous generation in a computer
Spontaneous generation of life in computer
Survival within computer
Transformation adaptation to any
5812 5813
Summary: Abstract formulation of "survival" and "essential variable". 5828, 5963, 5984
Death changes environment too
Survival is of organism and environment
5814 5815
Summary: (1) A part, may be rich in stable subsets. (2) Death hits both organism and environment.
Laws of nature that "change themselves"
Operator that changes itself
Transformation that changes itself
5816 5817
Summary: An operator may be thought of as "changing its properties" if it moves from one sub-set to another. 5844, 6109
5818 5819
Machine uncertainty analysis of
Uncertainty analysis of machine
5820 5821
Summary: McGill and Garner's uncertainty analysis applied to machines.
5822 5823
Constraint D.I.E.(diagram of immediate effects) as
Diagram of immediate effects (D.I.E.) as constraint
Transformation D.I.E. (diagram of immediate effects) as constraint
Summary: The D.I.E. (diagram of immediate effects) marks out a subset from the set of all transformations. 5982
5824 5825
Summary: Habituation and the conditioned reflex as consequences of the law of experience.
Experience and habituation
Habituation and law of experience
Summary: All that a mechanism for the conditioned reflex needs is a clear bias.
5826 5827
Survival under operator
Natural Selection [88]: Survival under random operator 5828.
Summary: Survival of the fittest in random operations. 5961
Combinatorial dynamics envisaged
5828 5829
Summary: In the cortex, study only the unspecialised case.
Information loss through net
Network transmission through
5830 5831
Summary: Transmission of variety through a random network, Let the net be not a chain but broad.
Goal composite goal
5832 5833
Experience makes every machine stable in a sense
Stability every machine is
Summary: When the machine with input is determinate, the output-trajectory determined by a given input-trajectory is stable.
Pattern (in general) recognition of
Perceptron
5834 5835
Summary: Demonstration of how, over any set, any subset can be marked off as having a "natural" grouping. Even bigger batch 5896, 6167
Recognition of pattern (odd-one-out)
5836 5836A
Association explanation by confluants
Confluant and conditioned reflex
Equilibrium under regular transitions
Reflex, conditioned and confluants
Transition sequence of
Trap = closed or stable set
Hover mouse here to display note
5836B 5837
Confluant and conditioned reflex
Equilibrium under regular transitions
Summary: The trap under a two-valued variation at the input.
Confluant and conditioned reflex
Equilibrium under regular transitions
Habituation as special case
5838 5839
Confluant and conditioned reflex
Equilibrium under regular transitions
Confluant and conditioned reflex
Equilibrium under regular transitions
5840 5841
Confluant and conditioned reflex
Equilibrium under regular transitions
Confluant and conditioned reflex
Equilibrium under regular transitions
5842 5843
Confluant and conditioned reflex
Diffusion of pattern
Equilibrium under regular transitions
Input pattern in
Inscription defined
Isomorphism transitions and confluents
Learning without feedback
Pattern (in general) transmission of
Summary: The pattern in the confluents tends to copy the pattern in the input-transitions. Stochastic case: 5873, 5892
Anticipation automatic
Confluant and conditioned reflex
Continuity learning the structure
Dimension learning it empirically
Equilibrium under regular transitions
Prediction automatic
5844 5845
Confluant and conditioned reflex
Equilibrium under regular transitions
Confluant and conditioned reflex
Equilibrium under regular transitions
Inscription and Jennings' law
Resolution of physiological states Jennings
5846 5847
Confluant and conditioned reflex
Equilibrium under regular transitions
Summary: Jennings' law of the resolution of physiological states. 5880, 6101, 6137
Confluant and conditioned reflex
Equilibrium under regular transitions
5848 5849
Confluant and conditioned reflex
Equilibrium under regular transitions
Summary: There are complications before "in same confluent" means "moving towards".
Confluant and conditioned reflex
Confluant of homeostat
Equilibrium under regular transitions
5850 5851
Field (of substitution) of homeostat
Homeostat confluants of
5852 5853
Summary: The homeostat's confluents.
Forcing a variable two types
Confluant boundaries under forcing
5854 5855
Reflex, conditioned on homeastat
5856 5857
Summary: Paradoxical predictions for conditioned reflexes.
Reflex, conditioned secondary conditioned reflex
Trace reflex theory
5858 5859
Summary: Simple, second-order, third order Conditioned Reflexes examined by the method of confluents. 6097
Summary: The conditioned dog must have these relations.
Inscription in conditioning
5860 5861
Reflex, conditioned and its "basic" mechanism
5862 5863
Constraint in canonical representation
Constraint of near-equality
Summary: Defeat of my attempt to uncover the "secret" of the conditioned reflex.
5864 5865
History restoring predictability
Machine incompletely observable
Memory restoring predictability
Observable incomplete
5866 5867
5868 5869
Summary: Restoring single-valuedness of prediction, when parts of a machine with active input are not observable, by taking its history into account. 6050, 6069
Summary: Constraint in the environment will show (in certain conditions) in the organism's behaviour.
Constraint in environment's transitions
Environment constraints in transitions
Kinaesthesia constraints in
Space-time structure in
5870 5871
Summary: Examples of patterns that will spread into the nervous system. 5949
5872 5873
Summary: Transfer of pattern when input and machine are stochastic.
5874 5875
Summary: Fully joined systems must be known k steps back if k variables are unobservable.
Homeostat Vienna model
Inscription and ultrastability
Ultrastability and inscription
5876 5877
5878 5879
Anticipation of adaptations
Summary: Relation between adaptation and anticipation.
5880 5881
Stability conditional and partial
5882 5883
Summary: "Conditioned" stability can readily be defined rigorously. 6091
Inaccessible (set of states) conditional
5884 5885
Summary: "Conditioned" inaccessibility can readily be defined rigorously.
Summary: A system may have different subsets conditionally stable when the input has different constraints. 6091
5886 5887
Summary: Transfer of constraints from the world outside to that inside.
Summary: A machine with input may correspond to an algebra.
Algebra machine and internal composition
Associativity (mathematical) and machine
Machine and its algebra
5888 5889
Stability and evolution
Summary: Statistical trends (in stochastic processes) are, to be evolving species, simply a method that may or may not be adapted for the job. Once adopted, they have the force of a law.
5890 5891
Constraint trasmission of
Mapping of binary relation to mapping
Pattern (in general) transmission of
Relation transission of
Summary: How a relation is transmitted by an operator.
5892 5893
Summary: Patterns on the transitions at the input lead to isomorphic patterns on the transitions internally. 5900, 5905 [deleted].
5894 5895
Odd-one-out
Pattern (in general) all are arbitrary
Recognition of pattern (odd-one-out)
5896 5897
Summary: Pattern recognising. 6167, 6305
5898 5899
5900 5901
Summary: If a sequence of impulsive stimuli is constrained to certain transitions, the transitions of the representative point between equilibria tends to an isomorphic pattern. 5905 [deleted].
Model sand as model
Topology useless to me
5902 5903
Summary: Present-day topology is obsessed by continuity, and is therefore of no use to me. (I must evidently develop my own theory of structure. This structure* was identified on 4934, in Bourbal's sense, and I have been developing it ever since, with "laws of experience" and such like. Restricted neither to continuity nor groups, nor numbers, nor algera, nor metric) 5949 * This structure was identified on 4934, in Bourbaki's sense, and I have been developing it ever since, with "laws of experience" and such like.
Summary: Adaptation, and diffusion of structure may go on independently. [deleted]
5904 5905
Machine mathematics of
Mathematics of machine
Hierarchy (of Bourbaki) machine in hierarchy
5906 5907
Summary: Program for developing the mathematical theory of machines.
5908 5909
Equilibrium Tilde-operation
Equilibrium operation of going to
Tilde ~ operation
5910 5911
Summary: Rigorous form of what is implied by the operator "let it get to equilibrium before applying the next stimulus". 5994, 6084
Independence another form
5912 5913
Summary: A new form of independence and the "proxy" relation.
Proxy relation
Relation "proxy" relation
Isomorphism Hilton's extension
Relation isomorphism generalised
5914 5915
Summary: Hilton's very wide definition of "isomorphism".
5916 5917
5918 5919
Relation between relations
5920 5921
Summary: "Isomorphism" as one of many relations that may hold between relations.
Laws of nature of patterns
Pattern (in general) laws of pattern
5922 5923
5924 5925
5926 5927
Summary: The theory of super-relations and the laws of pattern.
Summary: Do not confuse "patterns R are like patterns S", with "there is constraint in [RxS]. 6063
Resemblance
5928 5929
Transformation tables of FRF-1
5930 5931
5932 5933
5934 5935
5936 5937
5938 5938+01
5939 5939+01
Summary: The relationship S=ΦRΦ-1, studied from various angles. 5946
5940 5941
5942 5943
5944 5945
Transformation tables of FRF-1
5946 5947
Summary: Transition at input and transition between equilibria are related in the form S [subset] ΦRΦ-1. Not = , as given on 5893) 5949 [deleted]
Summary: Algebraic form of "[T~'s] trajectories are not more than one step long".
Adjacency
5948 5949
Summary: The constraint algebraically when a transition can only be to an "adjacent" state.
5950 5951
Lattice of stable sub-sets
Stable set multiple stable sets
5952 5953
Atom in lattice theory
Basin multiple
Closure and 'basin'
5954 5955
Summary: Conditioning on the homeostat examined by the method of confluents. 5877
Summary: The set of stable sub-sets forms a lattice on which the representative point moves only downwards. (True both for determinate and stochastic transformations) 6091, 6093
5956 5957
Generation of life
Life spontaneous generation in a computer
Optimum selecting efficiently
Spontaneous generation of life in computer
5958 5959
Adaptation spontaneous generation
Intelligence spontaneous generation
Summary: How to generate Life and Intelligence with probability 1
Regulation must have parts
5960 5961
Adaptation demands parts
Essential variables evolution of
5962 5963
Summary: Intricate cleverness in an organism can be demonstrated only when the whole has been analysed into plenty of parts. 5985
Part and cleverness
5964 5965
Summary: Spontaneous generation of life and intelligence in analogue form. 5967, 5984
Random will not give intelligence
Rubin and Sitgreaves' set of transformations will not give life
5966 5967
Summary: The typical, or modal, element from EE will not provide a system showing the spontaneous generation of intelligence. 5984
Summary: A set may be expressed with full generality both by arbitrary labels and by any arbitrary product-set-form. The product set is fully general. Review 5978
Coordinates change of
Metric independent of product set
Product set is fully general
Set or Ensemble full generality of product
5968 5969
Summary: We may see a whole with any set of components we like. Division of a whole into parts is relative, so far as labelling is concerned. Review 5977
Absolute system various divisions
Analysis relativity of
Joining relativity of
5970 5971
Summary: Wholes are divisible into parts specifiable by the observer, arbitrarily. 5984
5972 5973
5974 5975
Summary: Any arbitrary system may allow the demonstration that it contains any arbitrarily selected part.
Holism Review
Organisation Review
Part Review
5976 5977
5978 5979
5980 5981
Diagram of immediate effects (D.I.E.) as constraint
5982 5983
Summary: A review of the relations between "whole" and "part". 6019, 6025
Summary: Abstractness can go too far. 'Adaptation' demands several parts.
Adaptation demands parts
5984 5985
Summary: Cortex - not statistical but stochastic.
Brain is stochastic
Cortex is stochastic
5986 5987
Constraint trasmission of
Input property on
Property on input
5988 5989
Summary: Imposing a property on the set of input-trajectories will necessarily impose a property on the set of output-trajectories. 6063.4
Summary: "Constraint" is a relation between an Observer and a set.
Child and space
Space-time child's concept
5990 5991
Summary: Pidget on conception of space.
Topology and child
Coordination in set theory
Directive correlation (Sommerhoff) in set theory
Organisation in set theory
Regulation in set theory
5992 5993
Summary: Rigorous form of saying that behaviour is "organised". 6007, 6021
5994 5995
5996 5997
Memory Elsasser's estimates
5998 5999
Determinate and Elsasser quotation
6000 6001
Summary: Review of Elsasser. 6046
Memory disorderly store possible
Gene information in
6002 6003
Summary: "How much information in a brain?" is best preceeded by consideration of "how much information in a flip-flop?" 6043.8, 6179.9
Relay information in
6004 6005
Summary: Notes from Birkhoff's Hydrodynamics.
Model physics requires multiple
6006 6007
Laws of nature information in
Newton's law information in
6008 6009
Information amount in theory
Model has two informational measures
Summary: Every theory has two informational aspects: its passive, when it is learnt or otherwise acquired; and its active, when it is used as transducer. The two qualities of information are not linked necessarily.
6010 6011
Isomorphism Bourbaki's extended
6012 6013
Summary: The notion of two machines being "similar", or even just "related", has been completely generalised.
Machine "similarity" generalised
Relation between machines
Similarity generalised
6014 6015
Summary: Relations between machines.
Polystable DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) as polystable
DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System) [97]: DAMS was built by an ignoramus 6017.
6016 6017
Summary: DAMS was built by an ignoramus. 6025
Equilibrium of DAMS (Dispersive and Multistable System)
Summary: Parts that have only one state of equilibrium (for each given input) may build a whole with a multiplicity of equilibria.
Equilibrium number possible in whole
Organisation number of equilibria
6018 6019
Summary: In DAMS, I went for the cutting-up; I should have gone for the equilibria. 6028
Coordination in set theory
Directive correlation (Sommerhoff) in set theory
Regulation in set theory
6020 6021
Summary: Sommerhoff's basic formulation given set theory. 6104
Mathematics as dynamic system
6022 6023
Summary: Wiener suggests that maths is a dynamic process, that may end in a cycle.
Proof nature of
Diagram of immediate effects (D.I.E.) and number of equilibria
Equilibrium and D.I.E. (diagram of immediate effects)
6024 6025
6026 6027
Summary: Effect of D.I.E. on maximal equilibria of whole - cuts make the maximal number fall.
6028 6029
Eigen-theory in set theory
6030 6031
Summary: Eigen-theory generalised. 6109
Summary: A physical system that is not completely analysable. 6065
Information transducer that conserves
Machine information machine conserving
Reducibility irreducible systems
6032 6033
Summary: Algebraic property of the machine that transmits without loss of information.
Integration (mathematical) and set theory
6034 6035
Information in a set of functions
Laplace transformation in set theory
6036 6037
Summary: Coding a function.
Function coding it
Transformation of a function
6038 6039
The subjective [7]: A system cannot be a representation of all its possibilities, for they outnumber its variety. 6040.
Self-awareness impossible
6040 6041
Summary: Certain concepts about a machine demand a set, which can exist only in another machine. Such concepts can hardly be used by the machine if thinking about itself.
Summary: Machine whose output is invariant for changes in the speed with which the input is sent in. There must be an intervening stage of memory.
Memory allows input speed to be irrelevant
Atom number in brain
Brain number of atoms
6042 6043
6043+01 6043+02

Home | Journal | Bookshelf | Index | Other | Timeline | Previous ◄ ► Next | Help | Copyright