Home | Journal | Bookshelf | Index | Other | Timeline | Previous ◄ ► Next | Help | Copyright

Volume 22 of W. Ross Ashby's Journal
is loading...


1958
Volume 22
6043+03 6043+04
Summary: Number of atoms in the brain, and the maximal information it can store. 6179
Brain variety in
Summary: Distinguish between the qualities, in the brain, of information and of memory.
Sample space importance of
6044 6045
6046 6047
Summary: Finding how much information there is in a brain.
Information how much in brain?
6048 6049
Memory as transmission from past
Memory how much in the brain?
6050 6051
Channel capacity and memory
6052 6053
6054 6055
Summary: "Memory capacity" is basically channel capacity between times in the same system. Any Black Box provides an infinite number of capacities. 6069
Capacity for memory
6056 6057
Summary: Of all the !memory capacities", the maximal value may be of physical interest. 6179
Summary: Build devices for demonstration.
DAMS Mark II (Dispersive and Multistable System) [14]: Why not a new model for demonstration? 6059.
6058 6059
Summary: Build small specialist machines, each devised to show one fact with perfect clarity.
Immunity conditioned reflex in
Reflex, conditioned in serology
The Conditioned Reflex [47]: Conditioned reflex of alcohol causing production of anti-toxin. 6060.
Treatment a form of war
Psychiatric applications [96]: Blitz-therapy. 6061.
6060 6061
Summary: Blitz-therapy.
Summary: Two sorts of memory are identifiable. 6068
Hypnosis (mesmerism) Kelsey's work
Memory two types of
6062 6063
Atom proposition in logic
Complexity irreducible
Logic atom proposition
Proposition atomic
Reducibility irreducible systems
6064 6065
Summary: A proposition is "atomic" if its user does not propose to break it up.
Summary: The brain may be like a digital computer in being error-free by going from equilibrium to equilibrium. 6126
Equilibrium give error-free action
Summary: Irreducible complexity.
Summary: Simple "relations".
Relation simple examples
6066 6067
Summary: To test whether memory really is permanent.
Hypnosis (mesmerism) memory under
Memory ?eternal
Diagram of immediate effects (D.I.E.) among memories
Localisation principles of
Memory principles for localisation
6068 6069
Summary: Effect of "memory" is studied by the usual method for studying effect, but the two variables are separated in time (as well, usually, as in space)
Independence and number of equation
6070 6071
Summary: A DIE can be demonstrated rigorously in a machine with memory, and by the same basic operations as when there is no delay. Continued 6105
Summary: Learning by pain is fundamentally simpler (demands less communication ) than learning by reward.
Algedonic pain and pleasure different
Learning pleasure versus pain
Pain distinct from pleasure
Pleasure different from pain
6072 6073
1959
Summary: The theory of machines may help with interpolation rather than with long range prediction. 6076
Theory of for interpolation
Summary: The physicists are not yet clear about what they mean by 'casual' and 'determinate'.
Cause Born on
Determinate and Born on
6074 6075
Organisation Simon on
Set or Ensemble theory over-valued
6076 6077
Summary: The value of the new logic of mechanism can easily be over-rated.
Pattern (in general) transmission of
Transition constraint on
Transmission of pattern
6078 6078+01
Confluant and input
Equilibrium selected by input
6078+02 6079
Anticipation of adaptations
Tilde ~ operation
6080 6081
6081+01 6081-A
Summary: Equilibria attract. 6267
Equilibrium two attract
Resolution of physiological states Jennings
Topology of equilibria
Summary: The process of inscription is much weaker than I thought on 5844. Continued: 6092
Inscription very weak
6082 6083
Equilibrium Tilde-operation
Tilde ~ operation
Summary: Operation "go to your basin". 6267
6084 6085
Basin and tilde operation
Kernal relation (Riguet), =Noyau
6086 6087
Summary: Habituation with cycles allowed. 6108
Habituation tilde-operation
Machine generating properties
Selection by machine
6088 6089
Summary: A general method for solving problems in combination dynamics. 6108, 6349, 6334
Closure giving property
Property as stability
Stability generating a property
Summary: Closure under a sequence imposes little restriction on the closures at intermediate stages.
Closure under two operators
6090 6091
6092 6093
6094 6095
6096 6097
Summary: "Inscription" goes. How a pattern of equilibria is related to the pattern of transitions at the input. 6143
6098 6099
6100 6101
Resolution of physiological states in detail
Summary: Final conclusions (to date!) about my explanation of Jennings' law. 6347, 6137, 6108, 6143, 6127, 6128, 6269
6102 6103
Summary: Another way of writing Sommerhoff's directive correlation. 6105, 6284
Summary: Are isomorphisms denser around equilibrium?
Directive correlation (Sommerhoff) in set theory
Equilibrium generates isomorphisms
Isomorphism cluster at equilibrium
Summary: Isolating a pure concept is like isolating a pure element.
Localisation principles of
Memory principles for localisation
6104 6105
Diagram of immediate effects (D.I.E.) and theory of graphs
Grundy function of graph
Kinematic graph and graph theory
Summary: Berge's book shows me I must develop my combinatorial dynamics myself.
Combinatorial dynamics and theory of graphs
Graph theory of
6106 6107
Domain change of
Function change of domain
Operator change of domain
6108 6109
Summary: Restriction of an operator to a selected domain may make evident a property that is otherwise inconspicuous. 6137, 6350
Summary: Quantum mechanics is moulded chiefly by specific atomic peculiarities, not by general epistemological principles. 6179, 6303
Quantum theory too specific
6110 6111
Set or Ensemble two books on set
Oscillation two coupled
6112 6113
6114 6115
Summary: Oscillating systems, when coupled, do not necessarily pull together in frequency.
Compatibility machine and equivalence relation
Equivalence relation and machine
Machine and equivalence relation
Summary: When a simplification is permissible. 6148, Better: 6254
Summary: Today I can say I have solved the problem I set out to solve on 7 May 1928 [31 years prior]. I asked, roughly, whence came the patterning properties of the nervous system. The answer is now clear...
6116 6117
Summary: ... As the selection gets more intense, and the closed set smaller, so does the relation show more intensely. But also, so does it become more degenerate, until finally, at a state of equilibrium, the degeneracy is complete. Then all - disturbances and responses - meet at zero. The adaptation is perfect, intelligence infallible, all in Nirvana. The final statement.
Summary: General, abstract, nature of "induction",
Induction (physiological) nature of
6118 6119
Summary: Threshold combines lots of equilibria with continuity.
Alpha rhythm as mutation
Polystable and threshold
Threshold purpose of
Unsolved problems [19]: Does the thalamus exist to teach in childhood, becoming functionless later on? 6121.
6120 6121
Sub-system "size" of
Summary: Possible function for the "functionless" parts of the mid-brain.
Summary: The "size" of a system had no unique meaning.
6122 6123
Isomorphism generalised
Summary: Isomorphism, homomorphism and now protomorphism. 6150, 6260
Protomorphism defined
Structure protomorphism defined
6124 6125
Delay (in substitution) and equilibrium
Equilibrium and interruption
Interruption immunity from
Summary: The environment goes much from equilibrium to equilibrium, constant on route but noisy in timing. The brain, appropriately, also goes much from equilibrium to equilibrium.
6126 6127
Summary: Any part of the brain that behaves, with a characteristic pattern will tend to send that pattern to other parts. 6137, 6143, 6248
Break becoming memory
Memory evolution of
6128 6129
Amines and memory
Memory and amines
Spraying
Summary: How the amines may come in.
6130 6131
Summary: Rapid adaptation in an irreducible whole implies many equilibria in the parts.
Adaptation rapid adaptation demands equilibria
Equilibrium many necessary
6132 6133
Memory by aggregation of molecules
Step-mechanism by aggregation
Forcing a variable forcing homeostat
6134 6135
Summary: Simultaneous forcing of two variables may give a slight tendency to association. 6140, 6197
Association by simultaneous forcing
Reflex, conditioned by simultaneous forcing
The Conditioned Reflex [48]: Simultaneous forcing may give a trace of conditioned reflex. 6136.
Summary: Closure under a sequence, and a property of one operator, implies a corresponding property on the other operators. 6143, 6269
Resolution of physiological states general principle
6136 6137
Coordination in time
Directive correlation (Sommerhoff) in time
Input selection by
Property selection for
Selection by input-sequence
6138 6139
Summary: A more general type of "forcing" operator". 6269, 6247, 6312, 6322
Forcing a variable generalised
Summary: Razran's review reviewed. 6269
Reflex, conditioned Razran's review
6140 6141
1960
Summary: Set theory: model or language?
Set or Ensemble and brain
Pattern (in general) transmission of
Transition constraint on
6142 6143
6144 6145
Summary: Given a machine, an input restricted to certain transitions, and a subset closed under all sequences (words) restricted to such transitions, to find the properties of the pattern of transitions at the output. 6152
Summary: The outcome of an infinitely long input can be predicted from a finite number of steps.
6146 6147
Homomorphism only simplification
Machine and equivalence relation
Simplicity meaning of
6148 6149
Summary: Measuring how much a machine has been simplified.
Summary: 'Relations' between patterns.
Structure Bourbaki's Chapter 4
6150 6151
6152 6153
6154 6155
Summary: Input pattern of transition showing as output pattern.
Summary: Nearness in time encourages similarity in response.
Equilibrium case of many
Nearness in time, and output
Topology of time and behaviour
6156 6157
Summary: ... no regulator can be more effective than the state-determined system.
Determinate is best regulator
Regulation determinate is best
6158 6159
Summary: No regulator (other things being equal) can give performance better than the machine with input.
Entropy zero entropy
Markov process / chain of zero entropy
6160 6161
Summary: Meaning of H(A)=0.
Congruence in matrix
Coordination example in matrix equilibrium
Directive correlation (Sommerhoff) example in matrix
Equilibrium example of coordination at
Higher geometry of fields and matrix theory [30]: (Mod 12) MATRIX has VECTOR as equilibrium (and 23 other, given, vectors), 6163.
6162 6163
Summary: Example of the coordination that exists at a state of equilibrium. 6350
Accumulation (of adaptations) may demand chance localisation
Dispersion must be random (!)
Gating necessary
Localisation must be random
Memory must be random
Quotations [60]: Claude Bernard, 6165.
6164 6165
Requisite Variety, Law of application to accumulation
Summary: When there is no information about the problems that recur, accumulation demands that the activations are small and that the "chance" method be used. 6227
Equivalence relation are arbitory
Pattern (in general) all are arbitrary
Perceptron
6166 6167
Summary: What are grouped together as "equivalent" must be specified; information is required. 6181, 6222, 6305
6168 6169
Equivalence relation information in
Homomorphism variety of
Information in equivalence relation
6170 6171
Summary: When a particular equivalence relation is to be specified, the variety to be suppressed is of the order of |n. 6182
6172 6173
Difference equation solved
Dynamic system difference equation solved
6175 6176
Summary: The concept of feedback being positive or negative is usefully simple only when the system is continuous. 6184 [Goes in small steps - Riguet 6184]
6177 6178
Summary: Solution of the linear difference equation.
Electron has number of states possible
Relay has infinite states possible
6179 6179A
Summary: More on self-reproduction.
Pattern (in general) recognition of
Reproduction more examples
6180 6181
6182 6183
Summary: Selfridge's Pandemonium and pattern recognition. 6222
Requisite Variety, Law of in Pandemonium
Oddments [46]: Carry out the program of pages 6184 (foot) and 6185 (top).
Summary: I should re-read my Notes, Vol. 5 or so onwards, reading "lots of step-functions" as the more general "lots of equilibria", and lots of step-surfaces" as "lots of boundaries of confluents".
Confluant generalisation of step-function
Step function what matters is the confluent
Oddments [46]: Carry out the program of pages 6184 (foot) and 6185 (top).
6184 6185
Digital computer is specialised
Summary: The "general purpose" computer of today is in fact extremely specialised.
6186 6187
Digital computer is a table-user
Summary: The general purpose computer, to become a really general machine must simply become a table-searcher.
Table computer uses table
6188 6189
6190 6191
Summary: Rubin and Sitgreaves' results summarised. 6199
Pandemonium (of Selfridge)
Summary: I must demonstrate, some day, that a heap of manure has as high an organisation as a man.
Manure organisations of
Organisation of manure or silo
Reflex, conditioned in manure
Reproduction self reproduction, impossible
Silo organisation of
6192 6193
Summary: In a lot of ways a system cannot, strictly, be "self-.....ing". 6566
Organisation self organisation, impossible
Self-awareness impossible
Set or Ensemble undefined universe
Connexion independent
Feedback long, for independence
Independence at input
Loop long, for independence
6194 6195
Summary: Independence of probabilities of equilibrium demands that all loops of connexion be long. 6199, 6333
Equilibrium independence of probability
Polystable confluents similar
6196 6197
Summary: Can two fields be very different if both have lots of equilibria? 6248
Polystable forest fire in polystable
Polystable several properties polystable
6198 6199
6200 6201
6202 6203
6204 6205
Summary: Properties of the polystable system. 6243, 6248, 6342, 6363
Step-mechanism in learning (Estes)
Summary: Estes finds learning to go in jumps. 6542
Learning in all-or-nothing steps
6206 6207
Zato-coding described
6208 6209
6210 6211
Efficiency in Zato-coding
6212 6213
6214 6215
6216 6217
6218 6219
Chess Zato-coding in
6220 6221
Summary: Zato-coding.
6222 6222+01
6222+02 6222+03
Coding of pattern, [?-1S?]
Equivalence relation and pattern
Pattern (in general) after coding, [?-1S?]
Transformation of a pattern, ?-1S?
6222+04 6223
Summary: Pattern-recognising after coding. 6260, 6346
6224 6225
Summary: Form all mappings, and you are performing all pattern-recognitions. 6346
Mapping and pattern recognition
Vacillant of mapping
Accumulation (of adaptations) demands separate channels
6226 6227
Summary: Adaptation to the recurrent situation demands step-mechanisms with a multiplicity of channels.
Channel necessary
Adaptation faculties as adaptation
Faculty list of
Phrenology faculties of
6228 6229
6230 6231
Summary: What properties of a brain are specialisation to terrestrial life and what are good absolutely? 6404
Constraint discovering
Laws of nature value of discovery
6232 6233
Machine as constraint
Fibonacci's series as example
6234 6235
6236 6237
6238 6239
6240 6241
Summary: We study "machines" that depend on their immediately preceding states because experience has shown them to be very common in the world around us. 6246
Equilibrium complement of ergodicity
Ergodism complement of equilibrium
Summary: I must write a text book on the Theory of Equilibrium. 6350
6242 6243
Habituation tilde-operation
Topology natural, of machine
Summary: Why systems prefer small responses. 6248, 6250
Continuity and habituation
6244 6245
Set or Ensemble undefined universe
Universe if undefined
Summary: Only restricted types of trajectory or process are suitable for cybernetic studies.
Expectation operational form
Operational principle "expectation" and
6246 6247
Summary: "Association" clarified further. 6269
Association operational form
Diffusion of pattern
Topology transfer of
6248 6249
Summary: Sketch of a theory that two coupled systems, in going to equilibrium, tend to prefer regions in their phase-spaces that are topologically similar.
Equilibrium when topologies match
Summary: At equilibrium, with suitable metric, the responses have a bias towards smallness.
6250 6251
6252 6253
Equivalence relation and machine
Machine and equivalence relation
Simplification of machine
6254 6255
Homomorphism [=?µ?-1]
Summary: Machine Σ may be simplified by equivalence Relation [formula] 6260
6256 6257
Genius Campbell on genius
Induction (gaining knowledge by induction) by genius
Trial and error by genius
Summary: Campbell won't allow "genius". 6289
Ignorance field of ignorance
6258 6259
Projection of relation
Transformation meaning of SRS-1
Transformation when invertible
6260 6261
Summary: [SRS-1] is the "shadow" of R when "projected" by S. It can be inverted back to R if and only if [S-1S=Δ]. 6265
Dependence better
Diagram of immediate effects (D.I.E.) algebraic form
Immediate effect algebraic definition
6262 6263
Summary: Immediate effect is a reality-shadow reaction.
Machine as transformation of succession
Time machine as coding of
Summary: A machine is a "shadow" of simple progression.
6264 6265
Summary: Meaning of [formula]
Reflex, conditioned and confluants
Resolution of physiological states general principle
6266 6267
6268 6269
Summary: A better statement of the equilibrium theory of the Conditioned Reflex and Jennings' law. 6295, 6312, 6323, 6333, 6338, 6347
Tilde ~ operation
6270 6271
Summary: Theory of Conditioned Reflex and Jennings' law without equilibria under each operator. 6316, 6338
6272 6273
Solipsism A. Huxley on solipsism
6274 6275
Summary: Review of Suppes' book.
Neighborhood (in topology)
Relation Wiener's suggestion
Metric by clubbing
Topology by clubbing
Topology of brain and machine
6276 6277
6278 6279
6280 6281
1961
Summary: There is no difficulty in getting from a structure of mere clubbing to a full topology.
Equilibrium homomorphism of equilibria
Homomorphism of equilibria
6282 6283
Summary: Extension of homomorphism.
6284 6285
Directive correlation (Sommerhoff) algebraic form
Environment for brain ? (Rho)
6286 6287
Summary: Directive correlation quite simply. 6297
Adaptation anti-adaptation
Summary: Specifying the "worst" brain.
Genius Gauss' method
6288 6289
Summary: The genius searches. 6335, 6339, 6430, 6570
Summary: Unsolved problem: must systems grow in a way that is grossly self limiting in organisational possibilities?
Organisation growth
6290 6291
Summary: The Hamiltonian is a constraint on the field, therefore uninteresting.
Field (of substitution) Hamiltonian in field
Hamiltonian function nature
Summary: The Hamiltonian is not for me. 6321
6292 6293
Energy and equilibrium irrelevant
Equilibrium and energy
Max( ) (function) energy and equilibrium
Minimum energy and equilibrium
Summary: Energy flow is neither maximal nor minimal at equilibrium; it is just irrelevant. 6321, 6345, 6350, 6365
Constraint through relation
Relation transmits constraint
Selection through relation
6294 6295
Summary: If a set is diminished, any set tied to it by any relation will be diminished.
Summary: Getting from simple equilibrium to directive correlation. 6350
Directive correlation (Sommerhoff) in machine at equilibrium
Equilibrium and directive correlation
6296 6297
Summary: What a species can do, it can recognise.
Genes making recogniser
Recognition control by genes
Localisation of adaptation (niche)
Niche (ecological) mathematical example
6298 6299
Summary: So we have exemplified the fact that laws that are functions of their place of action, will develop different adaptations in different places. 6350
Competition mathematical examples
Selection by machine
6300 6301
Summary: A species that needs its competitors. 6350, 6355
Quantum theory is of deterministic system!
6302 6303
Waves wave-function as determinate system
Summary: The dynamics of the wave-function is that of a state-determined system.
Pattern (in general) are arbitrary
6304 6305
Summary: Pattern recognition is arbitrary. 6346
Summary: The "anatomical" body is only one way of identifying the boundary of a system.
Anatomy as D.I.E. (diagram of immediate effects)
Connexion mechanical
6306 6307
Diagram of immediate effects (D.I.E.) of isolated system
Isolation algebraic form
Natural system as communication net
Organisation as communication organisation net
6308 6309
Summary: What "isolated" means. 6349
Summary: Natural systems, observation, and experiment.
Experimenter and system
Observable meaning
6310 6311
6312 6313
Summary: Five properties necessary for the conditioned reflex. [deleted]
Summary: New layout for the conditioned reflex. [deleted]
6314 6315
Reflex, conditioned modes of display
Summary: More on Conditioned Reflex 6323, 6347
6316 6317
Reflex, conditioned ?Solution of problem [on Pavlov's page 197]
6318 6319
Summary: I read the riddle of [Pavlov's] page 197. 6338
Summary: Clear example of how a Newtonian system, with no convergence by Liouville, may show strong convergence if seen by a simpler observer. 6627
Convergence (of lines of behaviour) and Liouville's theorem
Liouville's theorem effect of simplifying
Pendulum Lotka's set
6320 6321
Summary: "Forcing" does not imply "one confluent."
Forcing a variable generalised
6322 6323
Summary: Final (?) statement of the lae of anticipation. 6334, 6342, 6347
Communication in conditioned reflex
Reflex, conditioned as communication between operations
Selection and conditioned reflex
6324 6325
Confluant ways of changing
Reflex, conditioned ways of forcing
6326 6327
Anticipation machine for
Reflex, conditioned machine for
6328 6329
Summary: Mechanical layout for showing law of anticipation. 6333, 6334, 6342, 6347, 6352
6330 6331
Summary: To show anticipation. 6334
Anticipation machine for
Feedback getting long
Loop getting long loop
6332 6333
Summary: Mixing network, one way.
Equilibrium forces relation
Summary: "Transmission" of selection among the components of equilibria. 6347, 6350
Searching from both ends
6334 6335
Chess two-way search
Efficiency in searching
Goal two-way search
Trial and error efficiency of
Summary: In a process of search, knowing the goal, and especially of intermediate goals, can cut the time fabulously.
Constraint in environment's transitions
6336 6337
Homeostat conditioned reflex on
Reflex, conditioned on Homeostat
Summary: Dickens says eloquence comes from thinking about the subject.
Genius Dickens on
6338 6339
Summary: Information when two inputs try to get through one output.
6340 6341
Confluant getting smaller confluants
Design for small confluents
6342 6343
Summary: Construction to get many compact confluents. 6347, 6362.9
Dispersion small confluents
Summary: Convergence to equilibrium in Markov chain.
Convergence (of lines of behaviour) Markov non-convergence
Equilibrium even distribution, Markov
Markov process / chain convergence (or bunching)
6344 6345
Summary: Pattern recognition is arbitrary.
Pattern (in general) are arbitrary
Anticipation theory
6346 6347
Summary: Theory of anticipation. 6352, 6374, 6389
Isolation as stability
Survival as equilibrium
6348 6349
Coordination compound equilibria
Equilibrium list of compound equilibria
Mapping compound equilibria
Operator compound eqilibria
Summary: Equilibria and their properties. 6373, 6389
6350 6351
Summary: The elementary conditioned reflex processes only about 2 bits of information, and needs a mechanism of only that capacity. 6363
Arc optimal size
Reflex, conditioned machine for
Achondroplasia Dickens' memory
Localisation principles of
Memory principles for localisation
6352 6353
Summary: Notes on: Finding stored information. 6362
Equilibrium as survival
Selection mathematical examples
Survival mathematical examples
6354 6355
Equilibrium as survival
Selection mathematical examples
Survival mathematical examples
Summary: Example of natural selection and evolution in a computer. 6358
Equilibrium as survival
Selection mathematical examples
Survival mathematical examples
6356 6357
Equilibrium as survival
Selection mathematical examples
Survival mathematical examples
Summary: Survival of the fittest in a computer.
Equilibrium as survival
Selection mathematical examples
Survival mathematical examples
6358 6359
Equilibrium as survival
Selection mathematical examples
Survival mathematical examples
Summary: Survival of the fittest in a computer.
Equilibrium as survival
Selection mathematical examples
Survival mathematical examples
6360 6361
Summary: For economy, the brain must store memories at the site of use. 6383
Localisation principles of
Requisite Variety, Law of localisation of memory
Confluant getting smaller confluants
Equilibrium getting neutral equilibrium
6362 6363
Summary: How to make a multistable system.
Energy and equilibrium irrelevant
Equilibrium irrelevance of energy
Homeostasis and energy
6364 6365
Summary: The physicist's equilibrium at zero free-energy and the biologist's homeostasis.
Chess three "organisations"
Organisation and redundancy
Redundancy three in chess
6366 6367
Summary: A game of chess shows three "organisations" simultaneously. One goes down, one up, and one does not change. 6379
6368 6369
Summary: The great difference between teaching by pain and teaching by pleasure. 6550
Summary: To feel sympathy is to have no assurance that the other entity is really feeling. 6384
Pain distinct from pleasure
Pleasure different from pain
Sympathy proof of feeling?
Summary: It is often forgotten that planning must have a goal. 6401
Directive correlation (Sommerhoff) need for goal
Goal necessity for
Memory nitrous oxide on memory
Plan must have a goal
Retroactive inhibition by nitrous oxide
6370 6371
Constraint polystable system finds
Polystable finds constraint
The Multistable System [131]: Polystable system finds constraint automatically(?) 6372.
Summary: The polystable system tends automatically to find and to use the constraints.
Anticipation theory
6372 6373
1962
Summary: To show anticipation, the operations must be such as lead to a unique state; by what route, whether quickly or slowly, are irrelevant 6389
Markov process / chain uncertainty analysis
Uncertainty analysis of Markov chain
Summary: How a Markov chain shows in Uncertainty Analysis of the triples.
6374 6375
Summary: How many parts produce this trajectory?
Part how many?
Parts how many?
Trajectory how many parts?
Summary: Proof of previous note.
6376 6377
Organisation and redundancy
Redundancy and organisation
6378 6379
Summary: Organisation and redundancy should be defined, in set theory, as [RR-1'R].
Constraint in set theory
Organisation in set theory
Summary: [RR-1'R≠0] is a sensitive test for the existence of constraint, but [RR-1'R] does not equal it.
6380 6381
Summary: On the subjective. 6384, 6427
Memory held on a relation
Summary: Memory held on constraints.
Knowledge communicable and uncomunicable
6382 6383
Unsolved problems [23]: What can a machine transmit? 6384.
Summary: A machine can transmit only ......what?
6384 6385
Summary: When [x'=Φ(x)], no convergence anywhere implies div Φ=0 everywhere.
Convergence (of lines of behaviour) and [div F (=?F)]
Divergence in phase-space
Stability and [?F]
Uncertainty analysis of 1,m
Complexity of basic assumptions
6386 6387
Summary: Examples of ideas that demand the pre-existence of other ideas.
Anticipation theory
6388 6389
6390 6391
Summary: Theorem on anticipation. 6394
6392 6393
6393+01 6393+02

Home | Journal | Bookshelf | Index | Other | Timeline | Previous ◄ ► Next | Help | Copyright